The causes of diabetes are various, and depend primarily on the type of diabetes, of which there are several.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases in which hyperglycemia develops, that is, high blood sugar. High sugar adversely affects target organs such as the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nerve tissue.
The role of insulin in carbohydrate metabolism
Insulin is produced by pancreatic beta cells. It transports glucose from blood plasma to the cells of human tissues. Glucose It is necessary for the normal functioning of any organ, and especially it is important for nervous tissue, vessels of the extremities, kidneys, and retina of the eyes. As a result of the fact that these organs lack glucose, the productivity of their work gradually decreases and their functional insufficiency occurs. At the same time, glucose is in excess in the blood plasma and hyperglycemia occurs.
The main causes of diabetes
The causes of diabetes are different for each type of this disease.
- Type 1 diabetes
Its peculiarity is that, for reasons that are still unclear, pancreatic cells, which normally synthesize insulin, are dying. Sometimes they die completely, sometimes most of them. As a result, insulin is not synthesized, or it is produced in a very small amount, which is insufficient for the transfer of all glucose from the blood to the tissues. The main causes of beta-cell death are still unknown. However, a genetic predisposition plays a major role in the onset of diabetes. Provocative factors are infectious diseases, often viral. Children and young people under the age of 30 suffer from type 1 diabetes.
- Type 2 diabetes
In this type of diabetes, insulin is synthesized sufficiently and sometimes even more than necessary. However, human tissues become insensitive to him. This is called insulin resistance. Most often this occurs due to the presence of overweight in the patient. Fat produces a special hormone that prevents tissues from absorbing insulin. Thus, the main causes of type 2 diabetes, it is obesity, which leads to improper nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, hereditary predisposition, alcohol abuse. The disease occurs in people older than 30 years.
- Gestational diabetes
It occurs in women who are in a state of pregnancy. The main reason is hormonal disruptions occurring on the background of gestation.
- Diabetes caused by other reasons
Sometimes diabetes can occur on the background of some endocrine diseases, such as acromegaly, Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism. It may also be caused by some medications: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, adrenomimetics. Sometimes diabetes occurs against the background of various genetic diseases, such as Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome and others.
If you know what the causes of diabetes are, then in some cases it is possible to prevent the development of this pathology. If a person in the family has a relative with diabetes, then he needs to adhere to the principles of proper nutrition, monitor weight and physical activity, and treat viral infections in time.