The spread of a disease such as type 2 diabetes is directly related to the increase in the number of elderly people relatively youth, that is, the natural aging of the population. Pathology develops with age-related changes in the body, ranging from 40-45 years old and directly related to impaired hydrocarbon metabolism.
Diabetes mellitus and hydrocarbon metabolism pathology
One of the main indicators of the norm in the detection of diabetes will be the blood sugar level of the patient. The data of statistical studies clearly show the dependence of glycemia (pathology of hydrocarbon metabolism) on age. The sugar content in the blood, taken for analysis before a meal, is higher than the norm within 0.055 mmol / l, and a couple of hours after the meal, the indicators exceed the norm by 0.5 mmol / l.
The excess of the norm within the specified limits is explained by a decrease in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin with increasing age. Upon reaching the age of 65 years and older, the situation with an increase in glycemia is aggravated by the following factors: in the absence of most of the teeth, the process of chewing food is disturbed, the choice of foodstuffs is the most high-calorie food.
Such pathologies that accompany patients in their ages (cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, various disorders of the musculoskeletal system) complicate the already disturbed hydrocarbon metabolism. Based on more detailed studies, it is safe to say that chronic violations of the blood sugar level are associated with general aging of the body, but they are not an obligatory pathology. A disease in which there is an increased level of glucose in the blood or hyperglycemia in a protracted chronic form is called type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes
Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in people over 65 is difficult, despite the use of modern techniques, for the following reasons:
- symptoms characterizing the disease are absent or not pronounced (complaints of fatigue, thirst, a sharp decrease in weight, an increase in the frequency of urination);
- dominated by non-specific symptoms (dizziness and general weakness, impaired concentration or memory);
- difficulties in diagnosis by laboratory methods (absence of hyperglycemia before meals, elevated threshold of glucose norm).
In order to promptly identify this pathology and prescribe appropriate treatment, it is necessary to regularly provide initial examination in risk groups, given the fact that old age is one of the causes of type 2 diabetes.
Complications of diabetes in patients are caused by mental disorders, such as memory impairment. This makes it difficult to consolidate the skills of control for accurate implementation of the recommendations of the attending physician in this group of patients. Often patients in the age treat their disease not as a certain way of life, but as an extremely serious disease without the possibility of a cure. This attitude not only affects the lives of patients, but also with an increase in age there is a progressive decline in the standard of living as a whole.
Diabetes mellitus is most dangerous not only by the weakened symptoms of the disease, but also by the reduced ability to recognize the symptoms of high blood sugar in patients in time. As a result, the attacks of a sharp change in the glucose norm provoke the most serious consequences: loss of consciousness and possible injuries associated with this during falls, which increase the risk of death for patients. Understanding the causes of a sharp rise in blood glucose levels, primarily by the patient himself, is the key to productive therapy aimed at reducing the risks of hyperglycemia.
Diabetes treatment: therapy and diet
Predisposition to the appearance of diabetes mellitus laid in the genes. If the mother and father of the child suffer from this disease, the risk of developing it in a child is 60-70%. As mentioned above, with age the likelihood of the disease increases. The following factors lead to the development of diabetes: high-calorie food, coupled with excessively large portions, lack of a balanced diet and, as a result, excess weight. A sedentary lifestyle, prolonged stress also affect blood glucose levels and make it difficult to treat diabetes. Long-term use of prescribed drugs (based on hormones, diuretics, and others) also increases the risk of disease.
Treatment of diabetes is primarily carried out with the help of drug therapy. Drugs prescribed by a doctor, mainly aimed at reducing insulin resistance, that is, increase the susceptibility of body tissues to insulin. If the prescribed therapy for a long period of time does not cope with the fact that the level of glucose in the blood exceeds the established norms, in this case drugs are prescribed with insulin content.
For prophylactic purposes and to control an already formed disease, it is necessary to get rid of excess weight, balance nutrition and lead an active lifestyle. Diabetes, as a disease, is well controlled by the patient. You just need to learn how to live with hyperglycemia and correctly use the techniques to regulate the excess of the norm of sugar.
Properly chosen diet for the medical treatment of diabetes plays a very significant role. It is necessary to remember about the main factors affecting blood glucose when choosing a menu. In general, all products can be divided into three groups:
- the first group or products that dramatically increase the level of glucose (flour products made from wheat flour, foods with a high content of sugar in the composition, fatty foods). The use of these products is not only undesirable, but also is dangerous for diabetics;
- the second group – the excess of the norm level occurs gradually (bread made from rye or wholemeal flour, some vegetables (carrots, potatoes, beets, peas) in boiled form, and fruits with low sugar content). With care and in small quantities, these products can be taken in food;
- the third group is the products allowed for consumption: green vegetables and sheets of salads, dairy products, boiled fish and lean meat.