According to the WHO classification , the main forms of diabetes were recognized as insulin-dependent (insulin-deficient) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), or type I diabetes mellitus, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), or type II diabetes mellitus. Next, a new type of diabetes associated with malnutrition (ADHD), as well as other types of diabetes associated with various secondary diseases, would be highlighted.
According to the classification of diabetes mellitus adopted by the WHO, a related pathological condition caused by impaired glucose tolerance began to be attributed to this disease, and a special class of conditions with a high static risk of developing diabetes mellitus (diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with a peculiar hormonal relationship between mother and fetus and the pathogenetic participation of placental hormones).
Among the two main types of diabetes mellitus, NIDDM is recorded more often than IDDM (80–85% versus 15–20%). The first of them occurs mainly in people of mature and old age (more often in women) and proceeds more safely than IDDM, which develops more often in children and adolescents and much less often in people of mature age.
SPD is common in tropical countries. More often, children and adolescents suffer from it due to a long-term deficiency of protein in the diet and the constant intake of tropical root crops (cassava, tapioca, cassava, etc.) containing cyanide glucosides, upon hydrolysis of which the final product is thiocyanate, which can accumulate in the body and having a cytotoxic effect on hormone-producing cells of the islet tissue of the pancreas.
This type of diabetes mellitus has a second form, characterized by fibrocalculeous lesion of the pancreas – the formation of stones in the main duct and its branches and extensive fibrosis of the gland tissue.
The causes of other types of diabetes can be acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cirrhosis, excessive production of hormones – insulin antagonists by endocrine glands in their diseases: somatotropic hormone in acromegaly, glucocorticoids in Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, thyrotoxin for thyroid diseases catecholamines with pheochromocytoma, glucagon with glucagon.
Medicinal Drugs and chemicals contributing to the development of diabetes, are adrenergic, antihypertensives, hormones, chemotherapeutic agents, neyrodepressanty, diuretics, pesticides.
Genetic syndromes associated with impaired glucose tolerance and the possible development of diabetes mellitus are Alstrem syndrome, Cokein’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic hamartomatosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, hemochromatosis, Huntington’s chorea, hypogonadism with stunting, Lorendeaux-Murat syndrome, Lorendeaux-Mu syndrome Willy, Werner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, etc.