Numerous studies around the world are focused on finding effective treatments for diabetes mellitus. However, do not forget that in addition to drug therapy, recommendations for changing lifestyle are no less important.
The purpose of adhering to a diet in diabetes mellitus is to normalize metabolic processes in the patient’s body. In milder forms of diabetes, strict adherence to the diet can lead to a decrease in the drugs used by the patient, and sometimes to a complete rejection of them. Doctors – nutritionists have developed a special diet for patients with diabetes mellitus №9.
The basic principles of the diet for diabetes mellitus:
- fractional balanced meals 5-6 times a day, in small portions, at the same time, which helps maintain weight within normal limits and prevents a sharp increase in blood sugar levels;
- with overweight, a low-calorie diet is indicated (≤1800 kcal);
- restriction of simple (easily digestible) carbohydrates (sugar and products containing it, syrup, jam, honey, fruit juices, etc.). The diabetes diet allows for the use of carbohydrates, which are slowly absorbed by the body. These include eggplants and zucchini, various varieties of cabbage, cucumbers and unsweetened varieties of tomatoes, onions, dill, and parsley. After consulting a doctor, you can eat beets and carrots without overusing their amount;
- an increase in the consumption of fiber-rich foods (from 20 to 40 g per day);
- limiting the consumption of saturated fats (margarine, butter, white fat on meat, chicken skin, palm and coconut oil), polyunsaturated fats (sunflower, corn oil, soy); preference should be given to monounsaturated fats (olive oil, avocado, oats);
- limiting alcohol consumption, taking into account the high calorie content and the risk of hypoglycemia (<30 g in terms of pure ethanol per day);
- the diet should be rich in vitamins and contain the required amount of trace elements. In winter-spring time it is recommended to take multivitamins in tablets.
Exercise is an important component in changing the lifestyle in diabetes mellitus .
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are recommended daily dosed physical activity of the same type: walking in the fresh air, swimming, cycling, etc. The type of physical activity, its intensity and duration are selected by the doctor individually for each patient.
It is important to note that physical activity not only lowers blood sugar levels, promoting the utilization of glucose from the blood into cells (and this effect persists for several hours after the end of physical exercise), fights insulin resistance, but also improves lipid metabolism (reduces triglyceride levels, contributing to the development of microangiopathy, and increase the level of high-density lipoproteins that prevent the development of atherosclerosis), and also have a positive effect on the blood coagulation system.
In addition, physical exercise has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system: it increases the efficiency of cardiac output, promotes electrical stability of the myocardium, reduces oxygen consumption by the heart muscle, reduces and stabilizes blood pressure, and improves blood circulation in the muscles.
It should be remembered that physical activity is contraindicated when blood sugar is above 14 mmol / L (due to increased ketogenesis) and below 5 mmol / L (due to the high risk of hypoglycemia – lowering blood sugar). Therefore, before, during and after exercise it is necessary to control the blood sugar level, and in the presence of concomitant cardiovascular diseases, it is also necessary to control blood pressure and pulse.