Disease diabetes is primarily detected by the level of sugar in the blood: it is elevated (hyperglycemia). Among the causes of diabetes are heredity, overweight, nerve shocks, diseases leading to a decrease in insulin production, for example, pancreatitis, viral infections. With diabetes mellitus, pancreatic malfunction occurs, which is responsible for insulin production. As a result of this hormone is produced less than needed, and the level of sugar in the blood becomes higher than normal values, and the glucose cells do not receive enough, and glucose necessary for the cells of the body, as it is energy.
Types of disease
Disease diabetes can be of two types. It is important to make a correct diagnosis, since the methods of treatment in the initial period of the disease differ. The diagnosis requires a number of tests, which must be repeated during the treatment period.
- In type 1 diabetes, the body produces antibodies that destroy pancreatic cells, which produce insulin, and a person needs insulin injections during meals. Treatment is accompanied by strict compliance. diets. An important rule: “fast” carbohydrates are forbidden, therefore one of the main restrictions that this disease puts is sugar, sweet, including juices.
- In type 2 diabetes, there is no such acute dependence on insulin, but the cells lose sensitivity to this hormone. First of all, as a treatment, a diet is needed for the gradual normalization of weight and, possibly, pills that reduce sugar, rarely need insulin.
Symptoms of diabetes
With these symptoms, you should consult a doctor and be tested for hyperglycemia:
- It dries constantly in the mouth, it is always thirsty to drink, even though the person constantly drinks water.
- More urine is secreted during the day than usual.
- Sharp jumps in weight
- The skin dries and itches, pustules can form, wounds do not heal well.
- There is increased sweating
- Muscle weakness
The disease may be complicated by the following symptoms, which indicate that the prescribed treatment is not enough:
- Vision deteriorates
- It smells like acetone
- Headache, heart, blood pressure rises
- Feet go numb, walking becomes more difficult, skin becomes less sensitive
- Swollen face, legs
What can be done for prevention
Unlike diabetes of the first type, the most frequent cause of which is heredity, diabetes of the second type (much more common than the first) a person can “acquire” because of his lifestyle. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to monitor the state of health, to keep the weight and pressure normal, in nutrition include slow carbohydrates, reduce consumption of fast to a minimum, moderately, without undue stress, exercise.