Diabetes mellitus is spreading rapidly around the planet. The main reason scientists and doctors call a significant change in lifestyle, the nature of nutrition. The planet’s population has begun to move less and eat more. The leaders in the number of patients are India, USA, China, Russia.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs due to a lack of production of one’s own hormone, insulin or its low biological activity. As a result, blood sugar levels rise.
Insulin is a hormone that processes sugar from food into energy. With its shortage, sugar remains in the blood unchanged, and the body does not receive energy for life.
Types of Diabetes
There are 2 types of this disease:
Type 1 diabetes – a pathology in which beta – pancreatic cells do not produce insulin. Insulin dependence 100%
Type 2 diabetes – a relative insulin deficiency – while the cells of the pancreas produce enough insulin. Insulin dependence 25-50%
Reasons for the development of diabetes 1
- Autoimmune processes (the body destroys B-cells that produce insulin. The cause is unknown)
- Severe viral diseases (influenza and others)
The disease develops at a young age, mainly up to 35 years, and is manifested by severe symptoms, to which the patient immediately pays attention. This is a strong thirst, fatigue, weight loss. Without timely treatment, coma and death.
Insulin-dependent diabetes is a pathology in which insulin is produced enough, but the body’s cells are not sensitive to it.
The reasons for the development of diabetes 2
- Obesity (BMI more than 30kg / m2)
- Nutritional features (eating large amounts of sugary and fatty foods)
- High blood pressure.
The disease develops at an older age, often occurs with minimal symptoms that a person does not pay attention to for a long time. This is a slight weakness, decreased vision, tingling in the limbs.
Screening for diabetes. The main method in determining this ailment is a blood test for sugar. The normal value in the analysis of capillary blood is considered an indicator of glucose of 3.3-5.5 mmol / l, venous 3.7-6.1 mmol / l. If the glucose index from the finger is higher than 6.1 mmol / l, and from the vein it is 7.1 mmol / l, then the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is made. Provided that the last meal was more than 2 hours ago.
There are many additional studies that help the doctor establish an accurate diagnosis. This is a blood test for insulin, C peptide, glycated hemoglobin. A urine test for sugar, protein, and ketone bodies.
Diabetes Treatment Methods
For type 1, only the administration of the hormone insulin from outside, using injections that are administered subcutaneously several times a day, is used.
For the treatment of type 2, a diet with the exception of refined carbohydrates, physical activity, weight loss to normal is used. If necessary, sugar-lowering drugs in tablets are prescribed. In some cases, insulin injections are prescribed.
Important: in the absence of adequate treatment for this disease, serious complications such as loss of vision, renal failure, heart attacks, strokes, gangrene, coma develop.
Diet for diabetes
Sweet, fatty foods, pastries, alcohol, sweet fruits, potatoes, pasta are completely excluded from the diet. The menu includes “complex” carbohydrates, such as dark bread, cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal, barley). Frequent fractional nutrition, refusal of food at night.
Thus, diabetes mellitus is an ailment that requires constant monitoring of your condition, strict implementation of all the recommendations of doctors on diet, physical activity and taking medications. In this case, the patient lives a long active life without complications of the disease.