Diagnosis of diabetes is carried out at the onset of the first symptoms of diabetes. Untreated diabetes in time can cause serious conditions threatening life and health. Timely detection of the disease allows you to assign adequate diabetes treatment and prevent potential complications.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Diabetes
Diagnosis of diabetes is to determine the level of blood glucose. The normal value of fasting blood sugar is 3.3-6.1 mmol / l when conducting the analysis of venous blood. If the glucose indicator exceeds the figure of 6.1 mmol / l, this indicates the presence of pre-diabetes. When the glucose level is more than 7.0 mmol / l, the diagnosis of diabetes is obvious.
In both cases, the diagnosis is not limited to one analysis. It is necessary to determine the level of blood glucose after consuming carbohydrates – this is called a glucose tolerance test. The patient is asked to drink a glucose solution, and then determine the amount of blood sugar after 1 and 2 hours after taking the solution. If the figure after two hours exceeds 7.7-11 mmol / l, we can talk about the presence of diabetes.
When diagnosing diabetes mellitus, the level of glycated hemoglobin is analyzed. This indicator indicates how long the patient has diabetes – the red blood cells, changed under the influence of elevated blood glucose, persist for 120-125 days. By the number of such red blood cells can be judged on the duration and severity of the disease. Normally, the glycated hemoglobin index in healthy people does not exceed 6%, higher numbers indicate the presence of the disease and require consultation of an endocrinologist.
Additional research that is conducted when you suspect diabetes – determination of glucose in the urine. Normally, sugar in the urine is not detected, but in a patient with diabetes with a certain level of blood sugar (renal threshold) glucose starts to stand out with urine.
Another laboratory analysis used in the diagnosis is the determination of C-peptide. Its lower value indicates a decrease in insulin production.
If diabetes of the first type is suspected, the presence of antibodies to the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans is also determined. Antibodies indicate an immune disorder, as a result of which the body inhibits the islet cells responsible for insulin production.
Diagnosis of diabetes complications
Diagnosis of diabetes includes the identification of complications that the disease has managed to inflict. After all, the symptoms of diabetes can not appear immediately, and often the disease progresses hidden until the body cope with the consequences. To determine exactly how the disease managed to harm the body and prescribe the appropriate treatment, additional examinations are carried out: examination of the fundus of the eye by an ophthalmologist, an electrocardiogram and consultation of the cardiologist, examination of the function of the kidneys and vessels of the lower extremities.