Blood sugar lowering pills can affect the patient’s body in different ways. One group of drugs stimulates the active production of insulin by the pancreas.
The second category of drugs increases the sensitivity to the hormone, and the third group helps to reduce the absorption of carbon in the human intestine.
The endocrinologist selects medications to lower blood sugar levels, based on the patient’s condition, his concomitant diseases, age group, as well as the individual characteristics of the body.
Tablets that reduce blood sugar are recommended only in situations where a healthy diet, exercise and lifestyle adjustments have not given the desired therapeutic effect. During treatment, control of blood sugar levels is prescribed to prevent the development of glycemia.
It is necessary to consider in more detail the groups of drugs in order to identify their effect on the human body, to find out their negative sides and benefits for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Biguanides are derivatives of methylbiguanide-metformin , which provides a decrease in insulin resistance in patients with a history of diabetes mellitus.
Groups of such drugs increase the sensitivity to the hormone insulin, but the pancreas does not produce it more actively.
All drugs based on this potent substance are ways to improve the transport of sugar through membrane cells, smooth muscle tissues, blood vessels and myocardium.
During therapy with drugs, patients experience a decrease in body weight, as the amount of lipids in the serum decreases.
List of medicines that contain methylbiguanide-metformin :
- Siofor .
- Dianormet .
- Glyformin .
It is worth noting that all of these tablets are recommended exclusively in a limited dosage, because they have a pronounced side effect, as a result of which they can lead to gastric dyspepsia.
When a disruption in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is not observed during the first week of therapy, the doctor increases the dosage of the drug to reduce blood sugar levels by three times, this is especially true if the blood sugar is 20. The maximum dose of a potent substance is 3000 mg for 24 hours.
All pills to lower blood sugar are taken with meals, without fail drinking plenty of fluids.
Regardless of the choice of the drug, the doctor selects the dosage of the drug individually, taking into account many factors. And only when the drug is well tolerated, it begins to gradually increase to achieve the required therapeutic effect.
Sulfonylurea : tablet features
Sulfonylurea is a blood sugar lowering agent in diabetic patients.
It contains an active ingredient made from sulfamide. The tablets containing this active ingredient stimulate the cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for the synthesis of the hormone.
All drugs of rapid action that increase insulin synthesis are able to suppress the activity of enzyme substances in the body that promote the breakdown of this hormone, as a result of which the connection between insulin and protein is weakened.
During therapy with this group of drugs, tissue sensitivity to insulin improves. To date, a wide selection of such drugs from various manufacturers is presented on the pharmacological market. The most effective drugs for lowering blood sugar are:
- Antibet .
- Glybenez .
- Minidiab .
All medications that contain sulfonylurea are recommended by a doctor only in cases where excess or normal weight is observed, blood sugar cannot be reduced through dietary nutrition, and the presence of the disease for more than 15 years.
The following situations are distinguished when drugs of this category are not recommended for patients:
- Pathological changes in the liver and kidneys.
- The period of pregnancy, lactation.
- During a dramatic weight loss.
- Acute infectious diseases.
- Allergic reactions of the skin.
- Intolerance to the drug or its constituent components.
If the patient takes the drug for a long enough period of time, then there may be a negative change in the quality indicators of blood, there is tinnitus, systematic headaches.
During therapy, some patients experience allergic reactions of varying intensity and severity. As a rule, reddening of the skin occurs, the skin becomes wrinkled and flaky, acne similar to hives appears.
Incretin mimetics and their effects
Incretins are gastrointestinal hormones produced by the healthy body in response to food intake. They are needed to stimulate the production of insulin.
These substances are capable of affecting the human body only when the blood sugar level exceeds 5.5 units. In situations when the level of glucose in the body is normalized, incretins cease to affect the human body.
Today, this category of funds is considered the most expensive, while not very common in the territory of the Russian Federation.
According to the drug developers, these drugs do not have negative effects and can be recommended regardless of the type of diabetes mellitus. In addition, tablets for lowering blood sugar can be effectively included in complex treatment in combination with other drugs.