Diabetes mellitus is a pathology of the chronic course, which provokes irreversible changes in the human body. Always the reason for these transformations lies in blood sugar levels.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, diabetes mellitus proceeds against the background of a high sugar content in the patient’s blood. This condition in a patient is called hyperglycemia. That is why this disease is called such a “sweet” designation.
High blood sugar is most often observed in type II pathology, but the opposite state, when glucose is extremely low, is most often observed in diabetics suffering from the first type of ailment.
It is necessary to consider how to understand that coma has developed: diabetic and hypoglycemic, what to do to stop the diabetic coma? What if the diabetic has a coma, a cause that is unknown? And what is the first aid for coma?
Causes and symptoms of hypoglycemia
The hypoglycemic development of a coma is a consequence of a lack of sugar in the blood, but what could be the reason for this?
In the overwhelming majority of cases, the cause is the incorrectly selected dose of insulin in type I sugar disease. Or, the diabetic could not correctly calculate the required dosage of insulin, did not take into account carbohydrate intake, physical activity and other points.
Without the necessary knowledge, it is quite difficult for an ordinary person to stop a pathological condition in order to prevent the development of a coma. In this regard, it is strictly forbidden to experiment with the dose of the hormone.
Hypoglycemic coma in diabetes mellitus can also develop for the following reasons:
- Incorrect administration of the hormone. When the medicine is not administered subcutaneously, as needed, but intramuscularly. In this embodiment, the effectiveness of the hormone insulin is enhanced several times, which can provoke a crisis.
- Improper diet, skipping food. It often happens that the modern rhythm of life does not allow you to stop for a snack. A business trip, important business and other moments should not be an obstacle for a diabetic to refuse to eat on time.
- Incorrect load distribution. If a diabetic is actively involved in sports, then it must be taken into account that at this time the muscles actively consume glucose, as a result of which the blood sugar level decreases.
- Severe form of nephropathy, which turned into chronic renal failure.
As for the last point, everything is explained quite simply. If the full functionality of the kidneys is impaired, therefore, they work poorly, which means they cannot purify the blood, which leads to delayed utilization of insulin.
With hypoglycemic coma, the following symptoms are observed:
- Extreme weakness, the patient wants to eat constantly.
- Increased sweating.
- Dizziness, sleepy.
- The person is constantly yawning.
- Unwarranted feeling of fear.
- Pallor of the skin.
If you do not provide help in time for a glycemic coma, then the clinical picture becomes more pronounced, the symptoms worsen. A diabetic has a frequent heartbeat, pulse quickens, it becomes difficult to breathe, tremors of the limbs are observed.
Symptoms go along an increasing line, and a person falls into a coma, which is characterized by unnatural pallor of the skin, dilated pupils, arrhythmic pulse, lowering the temperature of the body.
The blood sugar content in hypoglycemic conditions is extremely low. There is no sugar in the urine, nor are ketone bodies.
It should be noted that the symptoms in adults and children are no different.
Symptoms and Causes of Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemic diabetic coma is characterized by a relatively slow development, and is based on an increase in glucose in the blood of patients. The main reason for this condition is inadequate treatment of the disease.
For example, a small dosage of the hormone is administered. Or an expired medicine is used, spoiled, and so on. An important factor that can lead to a crisis state is not compliance with dietary nutrition.
Injuries, various pathological conditions of the pancreas, which are not related to diabetes mellitus, can also increase the concentration of sugar in the body.
It should be remembered that the dose of insulin that was recommended by the attending physician should not be arbitrarily changed by the patient. Since extremely negative consequences and serious irreversible complications are not excluded.
Hyperglycemic coma, both diabetic and hypoglycemic, distinguishes between two periods: the ancestor, respectively, coma. However, the time of their development differs not in hours, but in days.
An ancestor is characterized by the following clinical picture:
- Dryness in the mouth.
- Constant thirst.
- Frequent trips to the toilet.
- The skin itches and itches.
Then, when ketone bodies build up, nausea and vomiting are detected. At the same time, bouts of vomiting do not alleviate the patient’s condition. Often, patients complain of painful sensations in the abdomen.
Coma has special signs, with the exception of loss of consciousness, which distinguishes it from other conditions:
- The skin is too dry and cold, there is a high degree of skin peeling.
- Breathing is frequent, intermittent. At the same time, the smell of acetone is felt from the patient.
The rate of development of such a pathology is based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient. If we talk by average standards, then the state of the ancestors is about several days in duration.
And the coma itself, if ignored, will lead to death within 24 hours.
How can a diabetic be helped?
If the patient has a low sugar level, a hypoglycemic crisis is observed, then first aid consists of several points. First, the patient must be put to one side so that his tongue does not fall, and the patient can breathe normally and freely.
Further, the oral cavity is freed from food debris. If the patient has a false jaw, then it must be removed without fail. If the patient is conscious, then he should be given a sweet drink.
For example, mix water with sugar, or sweet tea. Moreover, it must be liquid. Do not give candy or other food that needs to be chewed. When a diabetic is unconscious, it is not recommended to drink it sweet, it can choke. It is necessary to call an ambulance crew.
A coma with a hyperglycemic state requires urgent hospitalization. In the early stage of the diabetic coma, the hormone is first introduced, and insulin is calculated depending on the depth of the patient’s coma.
The rules for calculating the dose of insulin for administration in hyperglycemic coma are as follows:
- If the patient has a mild degree of crisis, then apply up to 100 units of the hormone.
- With severe coma, from 120 to 160 units are administered.
- With a depth of more than 200 units.
If the diabetic is over 60 years of age, then the dosage of the hormone should not exceed more than 100 units once.
Diabetes mellitus can significantly impair the patient’s quality of life. In order to live a normal and fulfilling life, regardless of your diagnosis, you must carefully follow the doctor’s recommendations, promptly administer insulin or take pills to lower blood sugar.
You should always remember that coma is an extremely difficult and dangerous complication of a sugar disease (details on the video), therefore, it is first necessary to call an ambulance team. And try to do everything possible to support the patient before her arrival.