According to statistics, a heart attack or myocardial infarction is the leader in the list of causes of death, which is facilitated by the modern way of life of people and many factors. A heart attack occurs in a person when part of the heart tissue begins to die, as a result of blocking the flow of blood to the heart muscle and not receiving oxygen. Blood flow to the heart is blocked by large blood clots in the coronary arteries. When such a clot bursts, a blood clot forms, blocking the path. Such plaques can form in the arteries as early as childhood, but a person’s lifestyle aggravates the situation. If the plaque blocks the access of blood to the heart only partially, a condition that increases the risk of a heart attack is called angina pectoris.
What are the main symptoms of a heart attack?
A typical manifestation of a heart attack is the appearance of pain behind the sternum, which can give to the neck, throat, arm. The patient has perspiration on his face, his sense of fear and weakness worsens, as part of the heart stops functioning. Other signs of a heart attack include dizziness, shortness of breath, palpitations, coughing, nausea, and vomiting. People suffering from diabetes mellitus or those over 75 may experience a “silent heart attack” that is not accompanied by any symptoms.
What is the first aid for a heart attack?
A person who has had a heart attack should be immediately seated or laid down. It is necessary to give him a tablet of validol or nitroglycerin as soon as possible. After this, you need to call an ambulance. If a person has stopped breathing, it is necessary to provide resuscitation in case of a heart attack: artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
What causes an increased risk of heart attack?
The risk of a heart attack can increase for various reasons. These include:
- age is the main risk factor; it is known that heart attack occurs more often in men after 45 years and in women after 55 years;
- the presence of angina pectoris – a cardiological disease in which the heart muscle does not receive part of the oxygen; the difference between angina pectoris and a heart attack is that during an attack of angina pectoris, improvement will occur 15-30 minutes after taking the medicine, and with a heart attack, improvement does not occur;
blood cholesterol: with an increased level of cholesterol in a person, the risk of blood clots in the arteries increases;
- diabetes mellitus – people with diabetes are at increased risk for many diseases, including those that may contribute to the onset of a heart attack;
- genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease;
- hypertension, i.e. high blood pressure;
- lack of physical activity;
- heart surgery – people who have had heart surgery in the past have a high risk of myocardial infarction;
- smoking – this dependence many times increases the risk of a heart attack;
- diet – meaning a diet in which a person in large quantities consumes animals or saturated fats;
- previous heart attack – one already experienced heart attack significantly increases the risk of recurring heart attack.
How to avoid a heart attack?
In order to minimize the risk of a heart attack, a number of recommendations must be observed:
- no smoking;
- monitor nutrition, get all the necessary components from food;
- do morning exercises, lead an active lifestyle;
- devote enough time to sleep;
- refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages;
- monitor blood cholesterol and blood pressure;
- bring your weight back to normal;
- avoid stressful situations;
- if you have diabetes, keep it under control.