Treatment of any disease is complicated by delayed diagnosis. Diabetes mellitus is one of those diseases that may not manifest itself openly, masking the symptoms. This is fraught with late seeking medical attention and many complications.
The content of the article
What is hidden diabetes mellitus?
Latent diabetes is a severe, imperceptible pre-diabetes condition, in which the body fully manifests its protective function, independently getting rid of excess sugar in the blood. The disease is manifested by constant thirst, frequent trips to the toilet. This removes excess glucose. Latent diabetes mellitus causes irreparable harm to the patient’s health, gradually progressing in the absence of proper therapy and increasing the risk of developing type 1, 2 ailments. The patient’s well-being may not worsen, but in the meantime, degenerative changes in internal organs occur in the body, vascular walls become thinner, the risk of stroke, heart attack, hypertensive crisis, and other cardiovascular pathologies increases many times over.
The causes of latent diabetes mellitus
Latent diabetes can occur at any age; it can be diagnosed in both a child and an adult. The female sex is more susceptible to the disease, in men the latent form of the disease is less common. The provoking factors include:
- Age-related changes. With age, many organs and systems of the body begin to work slowly, and health problems appear. In 80% of cases, elderly people over 60-65 years old have high blood sugar levels.
- Genetic predisposition. Hyperglycemia is inherited, so if older relatives had such a diagnosis, you need to be more careful about your health, constantly monitor your blood glucose level.
- Overweight. Extra pounds do not just spoil the figure, they provoke a malfunction in the endocrine system, slow down the metabolic process.
- Diseases of the pancreas. Viral or bacterial infections that affect an organ or give complications to its work can lead to a failure in the production of insulin, and therefore to an increase in blood sugar.
- The period of bearing the child. During pregnancy, hormonal changes and stress can provoke a failure in the endocrine system, worsen metabolic processes. As a result, gestational diabetes is diagnosed .
Women with polycystic ovaries are at risk for developing latent diabetes mellitus. Disease caused by hormonal imbalance often leads to pre-diabetes condition.
In pregnant women, gestational diabetes mellitus requires constant monitoring by a doctor. Any fluctuations in indicators are a reason for hospitalization. Correct treatment, avoiding sugar-containing foods and supportive therapy leads to a full recovery of the pregnant woman. Often, after the birth of a child in women, glucose levels normalize on their own.
Symptoms of latent diabetes mellitus
Possible complications of latent diabetes can be prevented if it is diagnosed and treated in time. The situation is complicated by the fact that the symptoms of a pre-diabetes condition are often ignored by patients. Symptoms of the disease manifest themselves weakly, irregularly. One symptom can be replaced by another. But when the disease manifests itself in full force, treatment may be ineffective.
If one or more symptoms of latent diabetes mellitus are found, you should consult a doctor for diagnostics and tests! Only a specialist knows how to recognize a disease and differentiate it against the background of other ailments.
How latent diabetes manifests itself:
- Peeling skin, itching, dryness, redness, rash. This skin condition provokes pathogenic microflora, which does not manifest itself under normal conditions. Due to the increased glycemic index, the protective functions of the skin weaken, it is attacked by microorganisms.
- Constant thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination. Moreover, the symptomatology manifests itself in the same way at any time of the year, regardless of the surrounding factors.
- Weight gain or loss. The patient may feel constant hunger.
- Frequent depression, stress, apathy.
- Sleep disorders, fatigue, fatigue, lethargy.
- Headache, blurred vision.
- Increased pigmentation of the skin.
- Brittle nails, hair.
In men, the condition is complicated by sexual dysfunction, weakening of erection, prostatitis. All these symptoms can disappear over time, be replaced by new ones or accumulate gradually. But in any case, such conditions are a reason for visiting a doctor. During pregnancy, swelling of the extremities may be added to these signs.
In addition to the standard symptoms, the patient may have related diseases, which indirectly indicate the possible development of latent diabetes. These include dermatitis, problems with teeth and gums, sexual dysfunctions, partial loss of sensation in the limbs.
Diagnosis of the disease
Having discovered one or another symptom of diabetes, the patient asks how to determine the presence of the disease and identify the causes of its occurrence. An endocrinologist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of latent diabetes mellitus. The specialist conducts a survey of the patient, collection of anamnesis, differential diagnostics, as a result of which the presence of other pathologies is excluded. The main way to diagnose latent diabetes mellitus is to take the following tests:
- general blood analysis;
- biochemical composition of blood;
- general urine analysis;
- glucose tolerance test;
- for hidden glucose.
Additionally, the patient may be prescribed an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs for pathological changes in the pancreas.
What tests do I need to take if I suspect latent diabetes mellitus?
How to identify latent diabetes mellitus:
|Analysis||Indicators of interest||Conduct and results|
|Blood test||General analysis, Biochemical parameters, blood sugar, glucose tolerance||Normally, the amount of sugar in the blood should not exceed 120 mg. When conducting a glucose tolerance test, an indicator of not more than 200 mg is possible|
|Analysis of urine||The presence of sugar in the blood||Normally, there should be no sugar in the urine. Its presence indicates that the body cannot process excess glucose and tries to excrete it in the urine.|
|Staub- Traugott test||Increased sugar content after taking a special dose of glucose||Glucose is injected into the body twice, normally sugar should rise only after the first dose. If the indicator increases with repeated administration, this indicates the development of latent diabetes.|
In some cases, an endocrinologist may prescribe a blood test using a prednisone- glucose load. Within three days, the patient consumes a certain type of food, then Prednisolone is administered, and blood is collected for analysis. The results of the study confirm the presence of latent diabetes.
How to treat latent diabetes mellitus?
After diagnostics and confirmation of latent diabetes mellitus, the endocrinologist develops individual treatment tactics. It depends on the degree of development of the disease, the presence of related diseases, the general condition of the patient.
Important! The earlier the patient seeks medical help, the faster and more effective the treatment will be.
The standard treatment regimen for latent diabetes mellitus includes:
- Drug therapy. Prescribed drugs biguanides , inhibitors of alpha- glucosidase . The most commonly prescribed Metformin and Acarbose .
- Moderate physical activity. Swimming, hiking, cycling, stair climbing are preferred.
- Diet food. The main goal is to reduce the consumption of sweets, to get rid of excess weight.
- Herbal medicine. Decoctions and teas based on blueberry leaves, flax seeds, dandelion roots, and crushed dry bean shells help to reduce blood glucose levels.
You cannot self-medicate! This can lead to complications of latent diabetes and its transition to an open form of type 1, 2. The dosage and course of taking drugs is prescribed only by a doctor. All instructions and recommendations of a specialist must be followed!
Diet for latent diabetes mellitus
Proper nutrition will help support drug therapy and significantly accelerate recovery. Adjust your diet according to the recommendations:
- give up sugar and foods high in it;
- limit the consumption of fatty foods, light carbohydrates, convenience foods;
- give up foods high in cholesterol;
- add walnuts, vegetable dishes, low-fat fish and meat, seafood, liver to the diet;
- increase the amount of protein consumed;
- take vitamin complexes, trace elements;
- give up bad habits.
|Exclude from the diet||Add to the diet|
|alcohol; sausages; sausages; fat cheese; sugar; jam; cakes; candy; chocolate; ice cream; condensed milk; sweet and carbonated drinks; mayonnaise; high fat dairy products; egg yolk||vegetable oil; fish fat; seafood; boiled fish; white meat; nuts; beans; baked potatoes, carrots and beets; tomatoes; zucchini; celery; eggplant; cucumbers; Jerusalem artichoke; pumpkin|
It is important to know! The benefits of vegetables for patients with latent diabetes mellitus are high in potassium. In order not to experience a micronutrient deficiency, some foods should not be boiled, they must be baked. These vegetables include potatoes, beets and carrots.
Meals should be complete, but measured. The number of meals should be increased to 5-6 per day, and the portions should be reduced.
Prevention of latent diabetes mellitus
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The same applies to latent diabetes. Protect yourself and your family members from this disease and subsequent complications by following these easy recommendations:
- Monitor your weight . Extra pounds is a huge burden on the body, which leads to a malfunction of all organs.
- Lead an active lifestyle . It will improve immunity, increase stamina, strengthen health, and prevent many diseases.
- Eat right . Do not clog the body with slags, do not provoke a set of extra pounds.
- Treat infectious diseases in a timely manner . It is they who can give complications to the pancreas, which is the main protector against diabetes.
- Go through an annual medical examination . So you will not only learn about latent diabetes at its very initial stage, but also save the body from many other dangerous diseases.
- Give up bad habits . Alcohol intake, smoking weaken the body, make it helpless in the fight against ailments.
Latent diabetes is dangerous. Despite the fact that its symptoms are not always noticeable, the body always shows signs of intoxication. Do not ignore the constant thirst, sometimes it is the only sign of the development of pathology. And at this stage, the disease can still be overcome.
Latent diabetes, in the absence of adequate, timely treatment, turns into an open form of type 1, 2. This disease is not treatable and is chronic.