Pressure surges in diabetes mellitus are a common condition that not only worsens the patient’s well-being, but also threatens with serious complications. Against the background of hypertension, stroke, heart attack and other conditions that threaten the patient’s life occur. Every diabetic should know the symptoms and causes of surges in blood pressure (BP) in order to timely eliminate the pathology and prevent sad consequences.
The content of the article
Blood pressure in type 1 diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, 80% of patients develop hypertension (persistent increase in blood pressure). The main cause of this condition is diabetic nephropathy.
Diabetic nephropathy is damage to blood vessels in the kidneys caused by an increase in blood sugar. A common complication of type 1 diabetes.
If the kidney function is impaired, the excretion of sodium in the urine from the body slows down. This element begins to collect in the blood. The body accumulates fluid to reduce the sodium concentration by diluting the blood with water. As a result of an increase in the volume of circulating blood, patients are diagnosed with high blood pressure. Also, with a high concentration of glucose, blood volume increases, which further provokes an increase in blood pressure. It turns out that the main cause of arterial hypertension in type 1 diabetes is nephropathy. But the increase in pressure, in turn, provokes kidney disease. Often, patients with diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure are diagnosed with renal failure, which, if untreated, threatens the patient’s life.
In order to normalize the condition of the kidneys, high blood pressure must be treated. But since hypertension occurs against the background of nephropathy, a vicious circle is obtained. And in order to break it, the patient needs to undergo comprehensive treatment.
Type 2 diabetes blood pressure
In type 2 diabetes, hypertension occurs much earlier than high blood sugar is diagnosed. The reason for this condition is that the tissues have decreased insulin sensitivity. In medicine, this condition is called “insulin resistance”. With insulin resistance, a large amount of insulin circulates in the blood, which provokes an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, many sufferers learn about hypertension earlier than about diabetes. But insulin resistance does not stop there. Atherosclerosis caused by hypertension gradually develops. And this condition leads to a narrowing of the lumen in the vessels, which impairs blood circulation and causes thrombosis. Another reason for pressure surges in type 2 diabetes is abdominal obesity (the formation of a fat layer around the waist). And this leads to the fact that substances that contribute to an increase in blood pressure begin to be released into the blood. The complex of these conditions is called “metabolic syndrome”. It develops only in diabetes mellitus and is detected by symptoms much earlier than diabetes itself.
It is noted that hypertension in women occurs 2 times more often than in men. But low pressure is typical for representatives of the strong half of humanity.
Causes of high blood pressure in diabetes
There are two main causes of hypertension in diabetes mellitus: nephropathy and insulin resistance. Also, an increase in blood pressure occurs against the background of cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol. The provoking factors must be taken into account :
- heredity – it has been proven that hypertension can be inherited;
- menopause – in women during menopause, hormonal disruption occurs, which is the cause of pressure surges;
- endocrine system diseases;
- elderly age;
- chronic intoxication;
It should be borne in mind that minor fluctuations in blood pressure are normal. If, at the same time, there are no complaints of poor health, then all that remains is to control blood pressure.
Normal human blood pressure is 130/90. At night and in the morning, there is a decrease in tonometer readings by 10-20 points. On the contrary, after eating and physical activity, the pressure rises, but quickly returns to normal. In patients with diabetes mellitus, blood pressure does not decrease at night. Moreover, there is a tendency for the tonometer readings to increase after going to bed. And this is the main symptom of hypertension in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Other symptoms include:
- heart palpitations;
- tingling in the limbs;
- headache (mainly in the forehead);
- nausea, vomiting.
People with diabetes need to control their blood pressure in order to prevent a serious increase in blood pressure, which can cause a stroke. For this purpose, always keep a blood pressure monitor with you.
Symptoms directly depend on the level of pressure. The higher it is, the stronger the dizziness and chills. But a headache with minor deviations from the norm manifests itself more strongly than with high pressure. Depending on what current pressure the patient has, three degrees of hypertension are distinguished:
- Lightweight. The upper pressure does not exceed 160 mm. rt. Art., and the lower – no more than 99.
- Moderate. The upper pressure is not more than 179 mm. rt. Art., and the lower – up to 109.
- Heavy. The top is above 180, the bottom is above 110.
In severe hypertension, the patient needs emergency medical attention, as this condition is life threatening.
Causes of low blood pressure in diabetes
Lowered blood pressure in diabetes mellitus is less common than high. This condition is called “hypotension” or “hypotension”, and is as life threatening as hypertension. There are many reasons for low blood pressure in diabetes mellitus:
- Violation of the functionality of the autonomic nervous system. This condition belongs to congenital pathologies and greatly reduces the quality of life. Patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired ANS should constantly monitor the level of blood pressure, since it can drop to critical levels, causing serious complications.
- Disruption of the heart system. Diabetes is linked to heart function. And if there are deviations in its work, then there is a decrease in blood pressure. In turn, low blood pressure worsens the condition of the patient with diabetes, and it affects the work of the heart. It turns out that patients need to control sugar levels, blood pressure and the functionality of the cardiovascular system.
- Vegetovascular dystonia. Another reason for hypotension. With VSD , the stress hormone (cortisol) is produced, which provokes weight gain and uncontrolled pressure surges.
Other causes of hypotension include:
- pancreatitis, stomach ulcer in the acute stage;
- bleeding of various localization;
- lack of vitamins and minerals in the body;
- a sharp change in weather conditions.
Reduced pressure is considered when the tonometer readings are below 110/90 mm. rt. Art. The pathological condition does not include a short-term decrease in blood pressure caused by external factors.
With a high blood sugar level, there is a decrease in performance, drowsiness, and chronic fatigue. Low blood pressure worsens the general condition of the patient. During bouts of hypotension, the following symptoms appear:
- semi-faint state;
- depressed mood.
In this state, the patient is unable to carry out the usual activities, quickly gets tired at work. There is no improvement after a night’s rest. If the patient has VSD, then migraine pains occur against the background of hypotension . They begin with mild discomfort in one half of the head and progress to severe attacks, accompanied by vomiting and photophobia.
Treating pressure problems
With diabetes mellitus, patients need careful selection of medications to treat surges in blood pressure. Moreover, therapy for hypertension differs from therapy for hypotension. Treatment, regardless of the pressure level of diabetes, includes:
- taking medications;
- therapeutic diet;
- weight loss;
- elimination of the cause of hypotension or hypertension.
Alternative medicine is used as an additional therapy.
What to take with hypertension, the attending physician decides. It is not worth fighting high blood pressure on your own – the body needs comprehensive support, and in the absence of competent treatment, complications develop:
- renal failure appears 25 times more often in diabetics with hypertension;
- the risk of myocardial infarction increases 5 times;
- stroke happens 4 times more often;
- a sharp decrease in visual acuity, up to complete blindness, occurs 15 times more often.
Type 1 diabetes slows down many body systems. And at high pressure, the harmful effect is amplified several times. To keep blood pressure under control and prevent it from rising, doctors prescribe medications from several groups:
- ACE inhibitors. Drugs from this group block a substance that constricts blood vessels and traps sodium in the blood. They are distinguished by a mild action, no contraindications for kidney disease. The drugs in this group include Captopril , Enalapril .
- Calcium blockers. It is recommended to take drugs of this group for high blood pressure only at a low heart rate. Their action is aimed at blocking calcium channels. These include Verapamil , Diltiazem.
- Diuretics. In type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it is recommended to take diuretics together with ACE inhibitors. This is necessary to remove excess fluid from the body, which often causes high blood pressure. The drugs from this group include Acripamide , Bufenox , Veroshpiron. But with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is recommended to take herbal remedies: lingonberry, lovage, burdock.
- Beta blockers. Drugs from this group are prescribed to patients whose blood pressure rises against the background of heart disease. Beta blockers lower your heart rate and normalize your heart after a heart attack or stroke. For drugs in this group include: Trandat , Nebilet , Dilatrend .
- Alpha blockers. Block alpha- adrenergic receptors , which are responsible for increasing blood pressure in type 1 and 2 diabetes. In addition to the main action, these drugs normalize blood sugar levels and improve the general well-being of the patient. These include Prazosin, Terazosin , Doxazosin .
You can take drugs from the listed groups only under the supervision of a doctor. Medication names are for informational purposes only.
Alternative medicine can be used as additional therapy. Just be careful with them – not many herbs are allowed for diabetes and not all are equally useful. Several types of plants can be used to reduce blood pressure in diabetes:
Lemon and cinnamon for blood pressure are proven and effective ingredients in drinks and meals that can help you lower blood pressure in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
With arterial hypotension, the main treatment is to eliminate the disease that causes a decrease in blood pressure. You will need a consultation with a neurologist and a cardiologist, who, depending on the diagnosis, will recommend pressure pills. How to raise blood pressure in type 1 and 2 diabetes at home:
- In the morning on an empty stomach, drink a glass of warm green tea. But it is better to refuse coffee.
- Dissolve 30 drops of ginseng in a glass of water and drink.
- Salty cheese helps with low blood pressure. Just don’t overdo it – one piece will be enough.
- A contrast shower helps a lot.
- Physical activity and even a regular walk increase blood pressure.
If blood pressure falls irregularly, then you can do without pressure pills. In other cases, it is necessary to adhere to the doctor’s recommendations and take the prescribed drugs. Whether a particular drug can lower blood pressure depends on the patient’s condition. Doctors advise taking 1 tablet of ascorbic acid and 2 tablets of green tea extract with a sharp drop in pressure.
How to choose pills for pressure in diabetes mellitus?
In the first-aid kit, there should be pressure pills in the event of a hypertensive crisis. This condition is characterized by a sharp increase in pressure, severe headaches. In this case, you should take a Captopril or Captopres tablet , which have the ability to quickly normalize blood pressure. If you feel bad, but the pressure readings are not very high (exceeded by 10-20 mm Hg), then take half a pill. The rest of the medicines need to be selected only with the attending physician. In type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it is important that medications meet several requirements:
- do not increase blood sugar;
- do not increase the concentration of “bad” cholesterol;
- have a small number of side effects;
- do not affect the liver, kidneys and heart.
The drugs are selected taking into account the type of diabetes mellitus: types 1 and 2 require a different approach. It is imperative to consider how the medicine affects the kidneys and heart.
Prevention of pressure drops in diabetes
Dealing with pressure drops in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is much more difficult than preventing their occurrence. First of all, it is necessary to control the blood sugar level and prevent it from rising. To do this, follow the recommendations of your doctor, do not skip taking medications. What to do at home to prevent blood pressure surges:
- give up cigarettes and alcoholic beverages;
- get enough sleep, allocating at least 8 hours for a night’s rest;
- eat right, giving preference to healthy and natural products;
- take vitamin and mineral complexes;
- exercise regularly;
- measure blood pressure daily with a tonometer to determine if it rises during the day.
How to reduce and how to increase blood pressure, only the doctor decides. Be sure to consult a specialist in case of unstable tonometer readings and symptoms of hypertension or hypotension.