The norm of blood sugar during the day in a healthy person can vary within a certain range, depending on the diet, emotional state and physical activity exerted on the body.
Sugar analysis is a procedure that is performed by all people who have diabetes mellitus or have a predisposition to the development of this pathology.
For patients with a predisposition to the disease, it is important to monitor how blood sugar changes during the day, this is required in order to prevent the onset and progression of pathology.
If the norm of blood sugar during the day in a healthy person is exceeded, then it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor for an examination and taking measures to normalize the indicators of glucose in the blood plasma.
Common Sugar Allowance in a Healthy Person
With age, the efficiency of the functioning of insulin receptors in cells of insulin-dependent tissues significantly decreases. For this reason, after reaching the age of 35, you should regularly monitor the amount of sugar in the body and compare it with the norm of blood sugar throughout the day.
In the presence of pathology, a diabetic must measure sugar several times a day for strict control of the indicator. If additional control is necessary, the patient should periodically contact a clinical laboratory to donate blood from a vein for analysis for carbohydrate content.
This recommendation also applies to children who have a predisposition to developing diabetes. Over time, in the process of growing up, the child can outgrow this state, but subject to strict control of the amount of glucose in the blood.
In the case of a predisposition, at least one measurement of the indicator per day is required, and measurements should be taken on an empty stomach.
It is best to take measurements at home, and use a glucometer as a meter. For this purpose, capillary blood from a finger is used.
How does a person’s blood sugar change during the day?
Researchers have conducted numerous surveys aimed at measuring blood sugar levels throughout the day and plotting blood sugar fluctuations during the day in a healthy person.
During the research, three analyzes were carried out – measuring glucose levels in the morning on an empty stomach, measuring 2 hours after eating and determining the amount of glycated hemoglobin in the body.
After the work carried out, it was established that the standard norm of sugar during the day in an adult is a criterion that does not depend on age and gender.
The content of the amount of glucose depends on the food consumed. For a healthy person, the following normal value of the carbohydrate content in the body is established:
- in the morning, on an empty stomach – 3.5-5.5 units;
- in the period before lunch, before dinner – 3.8-6.1;
- 2 hours after eating – no more than 6.7;
- 3.9 units throughout the night.
The normal value of glucose in the body of an adult is 5.5 mmol / L
Normal fluctuations in blood sugar throughout the day in a child
The rate of glucose in a child’s body depends not only on the food consumed, but also on age.
During the first year of life, normal values for the amount of carbohydrates in the blood are considered to be from 2.8 to 4.4 mmol / L on an empty stomach. At the age of one to 5 years, the physiologically determined values are considered to be the glucose concentration in the range from 3.3 to 5.0. At the age of more than 5 years, the physiological norm of the carbohydrate content approaches that of an adult and is 3.3-5.5 mmol / l.
The normal fluctuation in blood sugar in a child is different from that in an adult. For an adult, 2.0 units is considered a normal difference between the indicator on an empty stomach and 2 hours after eating; for a healthy child, this difference can range from 2.5 to 2.0 units.
The most optimal values for the concentration of carbohydrates throughout the day for a child are as follows:
- In the morning on an empty stomach – the minimum indicator is 3.3.
- 60 minutes after eating – 6.1.
- 120 minutes after the meal – 5.1.
If a child has a pre-diabetes condition, the glucose values in the body significantly exceed the permissible concentrations in a healthy body:
- on an empty stomach in the morning – 6.1;
- 60 minutes after eating – 9.0-11.0;
- 2 hours after eating – 8.0-10.0.
If a child has signs of diabetes, the following values are recorded:
- In the morning on an empty stomach more than 6.2.
- One hour after eating more than 11.1.
- 2 hours after eating more than 10.1.
The level of glucose in the child’s body changes not only under the influence of the food consumed, but also under the influence of insulin, glucagon, hormones produced by the thyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
In addition, this important physiological indicator depends on the quality of performance of functions by the child’s digestive system.
The norm of glucose in the body of a pregnant woman and gestational diabetes
How does a pregnant woman’s blood sugar change during the day?
In accordance with the available clinical studies, the daily values of a woman during pregnancy in most cases do not fit into the acceptable range of values that are considered the norm for an adult. This state of a woman is associated with hormonal changes occurring during this period, ensuring the development of the fetus.
In 10% of cases in women during pregnancy, there is a violation of glucose uptake, this violation is called gestational diabetes. In fact, this pathology is a type of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with the difference that after delivery, the violation disappears, and the woman’s sugar indicators return to normal.
The recommended indicators for a pregnant woman are as follows:
- before food intake into the body no more than 4.9;
- 60 minutes after the meal, no more than 6.9;
- 2 hours after a meal, sugar should not exceed 6.2-6.4.
When identifying signs of the development of gestational diabetes mellitus, the permissible values of glucose in the blood plasma of a pregnant woman are as follows:
- On an empty stomach – no more than 5.3.
- An hour after eating, no more than 7.7.
- 120 minutes after a meal, the maximum value should not exceed 6.7.
If a gestational form is detected, a woman should measure blood sugar at least twice a day – in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before going to bed.
Measuring the amount of sugar with a glucometer at home
Recently, people, if necessary, can independently measure the carbohydrate content in the body at home. For this purpose, a device is used – a glucometer.
Blood is drawn for measurements from the finger. All fingers are used to take measurements, except for two – the index and thumb. Doctors recommend making punctures in the fingertips one by one.
Before carrying out the procedure, you need to wash and dry your hands well. This is required to obtain an accurate research result.
To carry out the test, the kit must contain:
- test strips selected in accordance with the meter model;
- lancets are disposable lancing devices.
In addition, to obtain a reliable measurement result, it is necessary to store the device correctly and avoid:
- Mechanical damage.
- Temperature differences.
- High humidity in the storage area.
You also need to monitor the expiration dates of the test strips. These consumables can be stored for a maximum of 3 months after opening the package.
The algorithm for the procedure is as follows:
- To check your glucose level, you first need to wash your hands and disinfect the puncture site. Before making a puncture, you must wait until the alcohol used for disinfection has evaporated. It is forbidden to rub the puncture site with wet wipes. This is because the components of the humidifier will distort the results.
- If the hands are cold, then they need to be warmed before the puncture.
- The test strip is inserted until a characteristic click is heard, after which there is either automatic or manual switching on of the device.
- A lancet is used to puncture the fingertip until a drop of blood appears, the first drop is not used due to the presence of a large amount of intercellular fluid in it, the second drop is dropped onto the test strip. After applying blood, the test result appears on the screen after 10-50 seconds.
- After receiving the analysis results, the strip is removed from the device, and the device is turned off.
If high or low glucose levels are detected, the likelihood of developing hypo- and hyperglycemia is high . To stop pathological abnormalities, various medications recommended by the attending physician are used.
Errors in determining sugar with a glucometer
Very often, when conducting a blood test for sugar, a whole range of errors is made that can significantly affect the result of the study.
The most common mistakes are – piercing a cold finger, making a shallow puncture, a large or small amount of blood for analysis, taking blood from a dirty finger or getting a disinfectant solution into the blood, improper storage of consumable test strips, and the use of expired strips.
In addition, the device coding failure, the lack of cleaning the device and the use of consumables that are not intended for this model of the meter lead to incorrect results.
Most doctors recommend performing control checks on the amount of sugar in the blood by taking an analysis in the clinical laboratory of the hospital. Such checks are recommended to be carried out regularly at short intervals.