There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (10% of total number of patients with diabetes mellitus) – An autoimmune disease in which the pancreas stops producing the hormone insulin, which is necessary for reducing blood sugar. Ailment usually occurs in childhood or adolescence (the peak incidence falls on 12 years old).
Type 2 diabetes (90% of numbers of all patients) – this is a disease of lifestyle. The pancreas produces enough insulin, but his action is weakened – the organism is not can them properly dispose of, because of what sugar accumulates in blood. The peak incidence of type 2 diabetes – 60 years old.
At In some countries, all newborns are examined for predisposition to diabetes. If a particular combination of genes is detected, a child year check on diabetic antibodies. But since effective preventive measures for type 1 diabetes are not there is, surveys only allow time to identify the debut of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes most often develops in patients with overweight, over 45 years, with hereditary predisposition with high pressure and high cholesterol. Studies show that carbohydrate metabolism has disorders in almost every second patient cardiologist.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes – weight loss, proper nutrition (diet with high fiber content that prevents the absorption of sugar in blood) and physical activity (2 hours of physical activity in day on 14% reduces the risk of diabetes).
Is heredity a sentence?
At heredity plays an important role in the development of diabetes: 80-90% of patients with diabetes have a familial diabetic history. But even with hereditary diabetes can not develop if you follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
The classic symptoms of diabetes (thirst and frequent urination) may occur when the body is no longer enough insulin. It is important to be attentive to yourself and pay attention to indirect signs – weakness, slow healing of wounds, numbness in feet. Optimal solution – regular examinations. If you at risk group – take a blood test for sugar fasting and after 2 hours after eating or blood test on glycated hemoglobin (reveals the average sugar content in blood plasma on for three months).
Does diabetes shorten life?
The average life expectancy of patients with type 1 diabetes today – about 60 years old. Today at our country 40 patients already have medals 50 courageous years of life with diabetes. “
Women with type 2 diabetes live about 76 years old men – about 70 years, longer than them peers without diabetes – behind due to the fact that they are constantly under medical supervision and pass control tests.
By the way there is whether vaccination from diabetes?
Scientists not leave attempts to create a preventive vaccine from type 1 diabetes that allowed would delay the onset of the disease. Until all the doctors attempt crowned with success. Vaccine from type 2 diabetes are considered physical activity and healthy diet
HOW TO EXTEND LIFE WITH DIABETES
Most of the deaths caused by diabetes can be avoided if you observe the vital conditions: eat right, take the necessary medications and visit the doctor. This conclusion was made by British doctors, conducting a large-scale study. Due to the fact that the body of diabetics can not use glucose properly, they can develop such complications. Like kidney and heart failure, which is fatal. However, many diabetics for a long time do not know that they are sick.
According to British experts, 30% of deaths can be avoided if people are engaged in health. The risk of dying in people with type 1 diabetes is 2.6 times, and with type 2 diabetes is 1.6 times higher than in a healthy person. In young diabetics aged 15-34, the risk of death is 4-9 times higher. The main methods of fighting diabetes today, apart from drugs, are special diets, physical activity and regular monitoring of one’s health.
How to live with diabetes?
It is important to regularly monitor the content of glucose in the blood and maintain it at a level as close as possible to the target. To do this, you need to take a few simple steps to a healthy lifestyle:
** weight loss
** healthy food
** regular exercise
** to give up smoking
** moderation in the use of alcohol
** observance of oral hygiene (patients with diabetes have a high risk of diseases of the teeth and gums).
** maintaining a normal level of blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) – compliance with the recommendations of the attending physicians.
** Each time before exercise it is necessary to measure the blood sugar level. Before exercise you need to eat in the event that:
– blood sugar level of 3.5–8.0 mmol / l;
– you injected insulin.
** if the blood sugar level is higher than 15 mmol / l, exercise is not recommended.
** Always carry an identification medical certificate (for example, a diabetic card, a special medallion or a bracelet).
** always start with slow exercises. Do not strive to do too many exercises at a fast pace, even if you feel that you are capable of it. The load should be increased slowly, as far as physical training allows.
** Record progress: record your achievements in the diabetes diary.
** Embark on an exercise an hour or two after a meal to balance food intake and exercise.
** If possible, exercise daily at the same time. For those days when the regular schedule is violated, it is necessary to draw up a special meal and medicine plan.
** Always carry products that contain easily digestible carbohydrates (sugar, juice, candy).
** Wear comfortable socks made from natural fibers and comfortable, properly-sized shoes that allow the skin to breathe and support the foot well.
** After exercise: determine blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels will indicate the need to increase or decrease the amount of food the next time before exercise.
Remember that sugar levels can decrease within a few hours after exercise.
** regular intake of glucose – lowering drugs ( tableted drugs and insulin).
** regularly (at least once every 1-2 months) undergo an examination by an endocrinologist (therapist).
** regularly (at least once a year) undergo an examination by an oculist, a neurologist (if indicated ), a cardiologist (if indicated), an angiosurgeon (if indicated).
** Regularly perform self-monitoring of blood sugar levels (using a glucometer ), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and cholesterol.