Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease of the endocrine system caused by a deficiency of insulin produced by the pancreas. It is the most common and dangerous endocrine disease that you need to be able to recognize in time to avoid serious health complications.
Most often, diabetes is diagnosed in people under the age of 30 years who have a hereditary predisposition to it. Such factors as malnutrition, viral infections, severe stress, poor ecology and autoimmune pathologies can trigger the development of this disease. One can recognize the presence of type 1 insulin deficiency by the following, rapidly developing symptoms: increased appetite, constant weakness, excessive urine output, unquenchable thirst and weight loss. In diabetes mellitus, many diseases last longer and more severely than in people without diabetes Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in people over 30 years old. Unlike the 1st type, it develops almost imperceptibly and gradually, also expressed by frequent and profuse urination, general weakness, constant thirst, and itchy skin. Quite often, patients with this type of diabetes have pustules on the skin and mucous membranes. Factors for the development of type 2 insulin deficiency are obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, heredity, malnutrition and excessive consumption of alcohol / sweets.
Regardless of the root cause of diabetes, sugar, which is ingested with food and contained in the blood, slows down its conversion to glycogen and combustion in tissues. As a result, the body has to use fat as energy, the active breakdown of which leads to the accumulation of acetone in the tissues and blood, as well as beta-oximebutyric and acetoacetic acids. They poison the central nervous system and other internal organs, at a critical level of accumulation, causing a diabetic coma and impaired vital functions. The main goal of treating diabetes is to lower blood sugar, normalize all types of metabolism in the body and prevent the development of serious complications. The treatment of insulin deficiency is prescribed in depending on the type of diabetes. With type 1, the patient requires daily injections of insulin, while for type 2, sugar-lowering drugs and a special diet are enough. Diet therapy should be prescribed with a strict calculation of the calorie content of the diet and the content of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements in it. Also, in diabetes mellitus, moderate physical activity is shown, which reduces blood sugar by oxidizing glucose in muscle tissue.