Insulin-dependent diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder characterized by impaired production of insulin by cells in the pancreas. It is diagnosed in 10% of all types of diabetes and requires lifelong maintenance therapy in the form of injections and a therapeutic diet.
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Reasons for the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes
Scientists and physicians have not established reliable causes of insulin-dependent illness. It is only known that the disease can be inherited, and more often it is transmitted through the female line. There are many hypotheses about the causes of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus. Only a few of them have found scientific confirmation:
- Autoimmune diseases . These include thyroiditis, glomerulonephritis.
- Diseases of viral etiology . The most dangerous viruses are rubella, hepatitis, mononucleosis, and mumps.
- Aggressive effects of chemicals and drugs on the pancreas.
Causes of type 2 diabetes
- Obesity . Being overweight is the main cause of high blood sugar levels. However, obesity also occurs for certain reasons: unbalanced diet, the use of low-quality foods, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the endocrine system.
- Diseases of the pancreas . Pancreatitis, cancer – all these affect the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin.
- Age . The older the person, the higher the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Indirect reasons include poor ecology, a sedentary lifestyle, bad habits, diseases with neurological complications. These factors negatively affect the work of the whole organism, slow down metabolism, and destroy cells of the pancreas.
Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is always insulin dependent. It is characterized by the cessation of insulin production by the body, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by an acute onset. A person can learn about his illness suddenly, after a sharp deterioration in health. In medical practice, there are cases when a patient immediately falls into a hypoglycemic coma against the background of a generally satisfactory state of health. But this rarely happens, most people seek medical help when the following symptoms appear:
- intense thirst, forcing to drink up to 10 liters of water per day;
- increased urination, nocturnal enuresis;
- pain in the abdomen, limbs;
- dyspeptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- persistent headaches;
- dry skin.
The first signs of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes appear in children and at a young age. Much less often, the disease is activated in patients over 30 years of age.
Thanks to the methods of modern medicine, including the use of supportive drugs, the life expectancy of diabetics does not decrease. If you follow a diet and lead an active lifestyle, then the risk of complications in the form of blindness, kidney failure and other diseases decreases.
Insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes
The course of insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes is slightly different. Symptoms typical for this disease appear in adulthood – in people over 50 years old. But an earlier manifestation of high blood sugar levels is also possible. It is possible to identify type 2 diabetes mellitus with a general medical examination, during pregnancy, during childbirth and other situations. A person may not be aware of what is at risk for many years, lead a normal life and not monitor their health. At this time, the active death of the beta cells of the pancreas begins, which leads to a violation of insulin synthesis. A feature of this type of diabetes is the ability to maintain the work of the pancreas with tablet form preparations. Addiction to daily injections of insulin can be prevented by changing dietary habits and addressing the underlying cause of the insulin defect. How many people live with type 2 diabetes mellitus depends on the quality of treatment and adherence to the doctor’s recommendations. In general, with an insulin-dependent disease, a person leads a normal life, but needs special medical supervision. This prevents the development of life-threatening complications and early death.
Insulin-dependent diabetes treatment
To begin treatment, it is required to determine what type of diabetes the patient has. For this, a number of clinical studies are being carried out:
- measuring blood sugar levels on an empty stomach, with exertion, during the day;
- blood chemistry;
- urine studies using several methods: general clinical test, analyzes according to Nechiporenko, Zimnitsky ;
- ultrasound examination of the kidneys.
The diagnosis depends on the sugar parameters: from what value the patient’s morning begins and how much the laboratory test shows after a food load. Normally, the sugar level in a healthy person should not exceed 6.1 mmol / L on an empty stomach and 11 mmol / L after exercise. If the first indicator is higher than 6.1 mmol / l, but less than 8 mmol / l, then additional studies are carried out. The condition of the pancreas is necessarily studied. If it is loose, heterogeneous or strongly compacted, then this indicates organ damage and requires the immediate intervention of doctors.
During the examination, the pathogenesis of the disease is compiled. The patient tells about the symptoms, past diseases, existing chronic pathologies. Only after drawing up the clinical picture, treatment is prescribed.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 requires an integrated approach. Therapy includes:
- taking insulin;
- treatment of diseases that have caused diabetes;
- adherence to a therapeutic diet, drawing up a menu based on the recommendations of a doctor;
- moderate physical activity;
- weight loss;
- constant control of sugar.
Non-traditional methods can also be used: Mishin coils , herbal decoctions, massage. The benefits of this treatment are questionable, but the techniques can work as persuasive, setting the patient up for productive treatment and recovery.
The meaning and principles of insulin treatment
Insulin therapy is the only way to maintain normal blood sugar levels. The introduction of special drugs does not help to completely cure the disease, but it makes it possible to live a full life. Insulin intake is indicated:
- with insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus;
- in preparation for surgery or colds in patients with type 2 diabetes;
- with type 2 diabetes, the treatment of which with pills did not give the expected results.
With insulin-dependent illness, it is impossible to do without injections. The drug is an artificial substitute for physiological insulin produced by the body. The medication acts more slowly, but retains a high concentration in the blood for a longer time. Insulin is injected several times a day:
- in the morning, before breakfast;
- in the daytime, before lunch;
- in the evening, before dinner;
- before bedtime.
The number of doses of the drug and the dosage are calculated individually. The treatment regimen depends on the patient’s condition, food intake, age, etc.
Video: Elena Malysheva. Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Insulin is divided into several types according to the duration of action:
- Ultra short . It begins to act immediately after injection under the skin and remains in the blood for 3-4 hours. They allow you to immediately start a meal, not maintaining the time interval. Ultra -short-acting insulin includes Novorapid , Humalog , Apidra .
- Short . It begins to act in 20-30 minutes and remains in the blood for 5-6 hours. After administration, it is required to maintain an interval of 15 minutes before eating. Short-acting insulin preparations include Rapid, Humodar , Actrapid , Monodar .
- Average duration . It begins to act in 1-3 hours and remains active for 12-16 hours. Medium-duration insulin preparations include Novomix , Humodar br , Protafan .
- Prolonged . This type of insulin is injected 1-2 times a day and lasts up to 24 hours, but begins to work only 4-6 hours after administration. Preparations: Lantus , Ultralente , Ultralong .
Also, drugs for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 are subdivided by origin:
- bovine insulin – is obtained from the pancreas of cows, bulls and other cattle. When using this type, allergic reactions are possible;
- pork insulin – is obtained from the pancreas of pigs. In terms of biochemical composition, it is very similar to human insulin (it differs by only 1 amino acid), but it tends to cause allergies;
- human – obtained in laboratory conditions by adding the desired amino acid to pork insulin or by synthesis from E. coli. This insulin does not cause allergic reactions.
The doctor decides what type of insulin to choose. It is strictly forbidden to prescribe drugs of this group on your own! If insulin is used improperly, a hypoglycemic state occurs, which is no less dangerous than high blood sugar.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 is not a death sentence. Follow the doctor’s recommendations, undergo a complete examination and treatment of diagnosed diseases to reduce the risk of complications.