Diabetes mellitus (abbreviated as DM) is a common disease that affects 285 million people. The statistics are encouraging: in 15 years the figure will drop to 150 million. The favorable prognosis is based on developing medical methods to combat diabetes mellitus, capable of keeping the disease under control, detecting and preventing it at an early stage. The question of whether it is possible to cure type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus is relevant among patients from all over the world. It is impossible to completely get rid of the disease, but this is not a sentence. You can live a long and prosperous life with the disease by following the therapeutic recommendations of your doctor.
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Etiology of diseases
There are 2 types of diabetes mellitus:
- Type 1 DM. It occurs mainly in persons under 30 years of age. The main symptoms: constant thirst, weight loss with an increased and uncontrolled appetite, frequent urge for little need. The provocateur of the disease is a failure in the body’s carbohydrate metabolism, which entails the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. The body is unable to produce the vital hormone insulin. Neglected stages, neglect of therapy lead to coma and death;
- SD type 2. The form is typical for the elderly, as well as those with a genetic predisposition to the disease. A characteristic sign is a lack of insulin production in the body, which can only be normalized by taking medications, normalizing the daily routine and diet. Symptoms: overweight, problems with the functioning of the heart muscle, impaired renal function.
There are other forms of diabetes that combine the symptoms of the two types of the disease. Researchers have not found universal drugs for their treatment, which motivates experts from the World Health Organization to deduce the problem as a separate classification.
Classification of treatment plans
Treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus is classified according to the severity of the current form of the disease:
- The mild form of type 2 is treated in the early stages, when the patient’s only symptoms are muscle weakness and persistent dry mouth. The habitual working capacity of a person is not disturbed, third-party injections are not required;
- Moderate severity is characteristic of both forms of the disease. The person is given additional injections of insulin along with drugs that lower blood sugar levels. This is the only way diabetics can normally assimilate the food they eat, while maintaining their usual level of daily activity;
- The severe form of the course of the disease involves daily injections of insulin. All carbohydrates are flushed out of the body along with urine. Correct treatment of a severe form can return the stage to moderate severity, improving the patient’s quality of life.
A third of the planet suffers from a disease called insulin resistance. The human body is not sensitive to the hormone, which is why its increased concentration in the blood is formed. Due to metabolic disorders, a person is prone to type 2 diabetes. The syndrome is formed as a result of an improper lifestyle, alcohol abuse, smoking, a passive way of social activity.
How is diabetes treated?
The treatment plan for the disease consists of several universal measures:
- Diet. It is impossible to control the development of diabetes without a diet, so the diet is severely limited and regulated individually according to the requirements and physiological characteristics of the patient. Alcohol is excluded (with the exception of moderate doses of beer, recommended for drinking 2 times a week, 0.3 liters). Diets are usually found on the Internet, but it is not recommended to test them on yourself without consulting a doctor;
- Sugar-lowering drugs. Medication is prescribed to patients to better control blood sugar levels. Treatment with antidiabetic agents is relevant only to patients whose body produces insulin in insufficient quantities. The quality of the work of the drugs is noticed, coupled with the maintenance of the diet and daily physical activity. Before starting admission, diabetics consult an endocrinologist and nutritionist;
- Insulin. Additional injections of the hormone are often given along with antidiabetic medications. Contraindications: pregnancy, lactation, hemorrhagic diseases, precoma and coma.
Treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by constant measurement of blood sugar levels. Doctors are guided by the average measurements before meals on an empty stomach and after 2 hours from the moment of the last meal. Diabetics are advised to do sugar tests several times a day, recording the results.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Diabetics suffering from this form of the disease have to give insulin injections all their lives, control sugar levels, and also engage in moderate physical activity to speed up metabolism and maintain body shape. An endocrinologist is regularly monitored. According to patients’ reviews, the most effective method of treating type 1 diabetes is a pancreas transplant operation, but this procedure is very expensive and painful during rehabilitation. After organ transplantation, a person takes immunosuppressive drugs for a long time. Dietary treatment eliminates indigestible fats from the human diet. Protein makes up 20% of the daily value of all calories, fat 30%, and carbohydrates 50%. Calculation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (BJU) is performed daily, even in the presence of a developed and habitual diet.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes
International medical practice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of several stages:
- A low-carb diet to help normalize and stabilize sugar levels
- Systematic physical activity, allowing you to keep fit;
- Taking medications;
- Hormonal injections for complex disease courses.
According to diabetics, in order to improve the results of therapy, it is recommended to completely abandon salt. Hiking, cycling and swimming are encouraged. Since physical education gives a temporary effect, its systematization is necessary.
Alternative treatments for all types of diabetes are not suitable for everyone. Traditional medicine, oriental practices – all this requires prior agreement with a doctor. Ancillary therapy is not prescribed on its own, since it only has a supportive, tonic effect on the body.
The result of a mass survey among people with diabetes mellitus says that modern medicine allows you to control the course of the disease, and it is no longer a sentence for people. Despite the fact that it is impossible to completely cure type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (except for the early stages), it can be contained, especially if the problem is identified in a timely manner. Modern medicines work effectively, providing the patient with a long and fulfilling life with the ability to conduct the usual social activity.