Pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus is a common pathological condition characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels against the background of a primary lesion of the pancreas. The most common cause of this disease is chronic pancreatitis. A distinctive feature of this pathology is that hyperglycemia develops slowly and gradually. In general, the prognosis for this pathological process, provided that the medical correction is properly selected, is favorable. However, its long-term course often leads to damage to the peripheral parts of the nervous system, retina, as well as medium and large caliber arteries.
This disease is also called type 3 diabetes. As we have said, it has a secondary nature and arises as a result of the primary violation of the functional activity of the pancreas. According to statistics, about thirty percent of people suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience this pathological process. Acute inflammation of the pancreas is complicated by hyperglycemia in about fifteen percent of cases. It is noticed that the most frequent representatives of the male sex with this violation are those who consume alcoholic beverages in excessive amounts, as well as fatty foods.
In addition to acute and chronic pancreatitis, this disease is sometimes caused by surgery on the pancreas. The likelihood of hyperglycemia on the background of the operation depends on its volume. Most often, this pathology is diagnosed in those patients who underwent complete removal of the pancreas.
In addition, at risk are people suffering from other diseases of the pancreas. Sometimes pancreatic diabetes mellitus develops as a result of existing malignant tumors in this organ. Pancreatonecrosis also represents a certain danger.
It is accepted to single out a number of predisposing factors that significantly increase the likelihood of the formation of such a disease in people suffering from impaired functional activity of the pancreas. First of all, they include excessive alcohol consumption, which can provoke an inflammatory process caused by the toxic effect of ethyl alcohol on the pancreas. Another important point is too fatty and rich in easily digestible carbohydrates food. Eating this kind contributes to a significant increase in body weight, the occurrence of hyperlipidemia and the formation of pre-diabetes. People at risk of developing pancreatic diabetes are also people who have been using drugs belonging to the group of glucocorticosteroids for a long time.
As you know, the concentration of glucose in the blood depends on the amount of insulin produced. Insulin is directly synthesized by beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the pancreas. As a result of a long-lasting inflammatory process in this organ or against the background of any other disorders, the islet apparatus may undergo destructive and sclerotic changes. With an exacerbation of the inflammatory response, the pancreas swells, and the level of trypsin increases significantly in the blood. In turn, trypsin has a suppressive effect on insulin synthesis, which leads to a gradual increase in glucose levels. At first, hyperglycemia is transient, and then becomes constant. Thus, pancreatic sugar diabetes may develop as a result of all the above violations.
Symptoms for pancreatic diabetes
We have already said that the formation of persistent hyperglycemia in this disease often takes a very long time. The first symptoms that indicate a persistent increase in blood glucose levels usually occur several years later. However, in this case we are talking specifically about the chronic inflammatory process in the pancreas. In acute pancreatitis or after surgical intervention, the clinical picture indicating hyperglycemia develops much faster.
Most often, such a pathological process is accompanied by moderate symptoms. Hyperglycemia to eleven micromoles per liter is hardly felt by a sick person. However, a further increase in glucose level may lead to the appearance of such clinical manifestations as a constant feeling of thirst, an increase in the volume of urine, as well as increased weakness.
Often a sick person indicates a significant increase in appetite, a change in emotional background. On examination, dry skin is detected. Such patients are more susceptible to the emergence of various dermatological and infectious pathologies. It is worth noting that all of the above symptoms are quite easily stopped with the help of glucose-lowering drugs.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Diagnosis of this disease begins with a thorough history taking to identify existing problems with the pancreas. It is imperative that a glucose tolerance test and a biochemical blood test be performed. Of the instrumental methods used ultrasound, and in doubtful cases – magnetic resonance imaging.
Pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus in the first place is an indication for the appointment of a special diet, implying a restriction of fatty and carbohydrate foods. In parallel, replacement therapy with pancreatic enzymes is carried out. To reduce glucose, glucose-lowering drugs are usually used.
Prevention of pancreatic diabetes
Principles prophylaxis consist of preventing the development of inflammatory processes in the pancreas. To this end, it is recommended to abandon alcohol and fatty foods. In the event that pancreatitis is still present, it should be systematically observed by a doctor.