The blood sugar rate in men is one of the parameters that vary greatly depending on the age of the patient. Knowing the rate of glucose in the blood is in order to constantly maintain a normal concentration in the blood, preventing the development of such an ailment as diabetes. This disease can be considered one of the most common
The pancreas is responsible for stabilizing the concentration of sugar in the blood. It produces the hormone insulin and animal starch – glucagon, which are designed to ensure a normal concentration of sugar.
Blood glucose is produced from glycerol, lactate and liver glycogen. Glucose is ingested with food. Regardless of age, sugar levels are affected by the amount of the hormone insulin in the blood and whether it can deliver glucose to the cells of the body.
There are other substances in the body that have a hyperglycemic effect. These are the following hormones:
Regulatory processes ensure optimal sugar concentration. Any disturbance in the work of the pancreas or the synthesis of the hormone can cause the disease. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor.
How to get tested
It is recommended to take a blood glucose test in men to exclude the disease or to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
You need to donate blood in the morning and on an empty stomach. At this time, the sugar content should not exceed 100 mg / dl. The results are also given in other units of measurement. 3.9-5.6 mmol / L is considered the norm. The analysis is carried out only if the patient has not eaten for 8 hours before the procedure. Most often, the test is prescribed as soon as the first signs of diabetes appear.
If the analysis is carried out 2 hours after a meal, the indicator normally does not exceed 4-8.2 mmol / l (or 145 mg / dl). Then the glucose content will be higher.
Blood for analysis can be taken at any time of the day – this is the so-called “random” analysis. With this method of analysis, the indicators should not exceed 7.1 mmol / l or 126 mg / dl. The study is carried out at any time, and does not take into account when and what exactly the person ate the last time. For a random analysis, blood is taken more than once, repeating the study at different times of the day.
The norm of blood sugar in men differs somewhat depending on where the blood was taken from for analysis. If venous blood is taken, even an indicator slightly higher than the usual rate will be optimal: 4.20-6.11 mmol / l. Exceeding this norm is not always an alarming signal; often the patient is prescribed a second blood test to confirm the results.
The rate of glucose by age
There is a well-established opinion that the norm of blood glucose in men is slightly higher than in women and children. This statement is true only in cases where blood is not taken for analysis on an empty stomach. Men can eat more fatty and fried foods, do more heavy physical work. A healthy body can independently cope with all the loads, so the norm for men can be exactly the same as for women. The only thing that can slightly change the test results is the patient’s age. It was found that in men after 50 years of age, the blood sugar rate is slightly higher.
In accordance with the research results, differences in blood glucose levels were revealed, therefore, the normal indicators for young men and people in old age differ significantly.
For children under one year old, the glucose level is in the range of 2.8-4.4 mmol / l. The rate changes somewhat over time, reaching 3.3-5.5 mmol / l by the age of 14. At the age from 14 to 50 years, the glucose content in the range of 3.89-5.83 mmol / l is considered normal. From 60 to 90 years, the norm again becomes slightly higher, reaching 4.6-6.4 mmol / l. A higher indicator should be the reason for going to a doctor, since at this age there is a high risk of various diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, disruption of many organs, especially kidneys, nerve endings and eyes. Then, after 90 years, the norm is 4.2-6.7 mmol / l.
The statement that men are more susceptible to diabetes is considered to be true, since they have higher stress levels and are more prone to bad habits (unhealthy diet, alcohol, etc.).
If the blood sugar level is exceeded or lowered, it is necessary to consult a doctor and begin treatment of the disease.
How to identify hypoglycemia
To find out the level of glucose in the blood, a tolerance test is prescribed. It allows you to diagnose metabolic disorders in the body, diabetes mellitus and determine the form of this disease. A blood intolerance test is prescribed mainly to check the controversial results of other tests:
- for patients in whom urine tests often show an excess of the norm, but at the same time the characteristic manifestations of diabetes occur sporadically, there are no permanent symptoms;
- with some liver diseases (thyrotoxicosis); the appearance of symptoms characteristic of diabetes mellitus, with an optimal level of glucose in the blood;
- genetic predisposition to the disease;
- the presence of rhinopathy or neuropathy of unknown etiology.
For the test, capillary blood is first taken for analysis. Then take 75 g of glucose, diluted in tea at the optimum temperature (should not be too hot or cold). Tolerance is shown first after 1 hour, and then again after another hour.
In adults, normal values on an empty stomach: up to 5.7 mmol / L (up to 50 years old) and up to 6.2 mmol / L (over 50 years old).
After a sugar load in men under 50, the norm is 8.8 mmol / l. Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed if the result is more than 9.9 mmol / L and above. Indicators in the range of 8.8-9.9 mmol / l are considered a dubious result. For patients over 50, the norm is no more than 6.6 mmol / l, diabetes – 7.7 mmol / l or more.
Ratios must be taken into account when controlling glucose levels. The first indicator is the hyperglycemic indicator, which indicates the glucose level after taking glucose. The hyperglycemic index for men is 1.7. The hypoglycemic index is calculated using the ratio of glucose level 2 hours after glucose intake and blood sugar level before meals.
Methods for diagnosing diabetes
Blood sugar can be checked with a venous blood test or measured with a glucometer.
Laboratory analysis is considered more accurate. The difference between a blood drop test and a laboratory test is 12%. A blood glucose meter is a more convenient device, but the values are somewhat underestimated. Therefore, it is possible to determine or refute a preliminary diagnosis only with the help of research.
The meter allows you to monitor blood glucose levels daily for both men diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and those who are at risk.
Using a glucometer is very simple, just follow the rules:
- 1Test only on an empty stomach. To obtain more accurate results, it is recommended to determine in advance the most convenient time for the analysis and to carry it out every day at the same time.
- 2Before use, you need to wash your hands thoroughly, then stretch the pad of your finger – ring or middle.
- 3 Wipe your finger with alcohol.
- 4 Make a puncture with a scarifier, it comes complete with a glucometer. Also, if necessary, it is possible to buy scarifiers separately.
- 5After the puncture, a drop of blood will come out. It must be removed with a clean cloth and the next drop applied to the meter’s test strip.
A test for determining blood glucose in men, after applying a drop of blood, is placed in a special section of the device. The electronic analyzer of the device determines and calculates the resulting result, after which the latter is displayed in numerical form on the screen of the device. The data displayed on the screen of the device is an indication of the blood glucose level.
Symptoms of an increase and decrease in the concentration of the indicator
An increase in sugar levels manifests itself in a number of unpleasant symptoms:
- decreased performance, fatigue, which may be accompanied by weakness and headache;
- during the day, there is constant thirst and dry mouth;
- pustular discharge occurs on the skin;
- increased appetite, simultaneously with a sharp decrease in body weight;
- the appearance of long-term healing ulcers, boils, scratches;
- urination becomes frequent and profuse, usually more frequent at night;
- decreased immunity, the patient becomes more susceptible to colds;
- for men over 50, blurred vision and itching in the groin area are characteristic.
In addition, with hyperglycemia, the likelihood of developing oncology is high. High blood sugar increases mortality from cancer of various localization (more often – cancer of the stomach and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract).
With hypoglycemia, the following symptoms may appear:
- heavy sweating;
- confused consciousness;
- increased heart rate;
- very severe headaches;
- fast fatiguability.
The appearance of even a few of them may be a reason for contacting the clinic. It is important not to ignore even minor manifestations: it is quite possible to eliminate the disease at the first stage, but the same disease in its advanced form is more difficult to treat.
Reasons for changing the amount of glucose
If the glucose level is exceeded, the pancreas is not functioning properly. It is not able to produce insulin in the required amount, and therefore is not able to transform glucose at the required level. This causes a violation of metabolic reactions in the body, which leads to the occurrence of hormonal disruption. As a result, the functioning of all organs is disrupted: they depend on the functioning of the vessels, which are destroyed in the first place.
Diabetes is often due to high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). The type of disease depends on the further reaction of the body to failures. Type I diabetes is diagnosed when the pancreas is unable to synthesize insulin and stops working. In type II diabetes (independent diabetes), the pancreas synthesizes insulin in the same volume, but it cannot interact with the cells of the body. They cannot fully interact with insulin, or they do not interact at all, but they feel hungry. Since the interaction of insulin stops, glucose does not enter them and begins to accumulate in the blood.
In addition to diabetes, other diseases can cause hyperglycemia:
- endocrine system diseases: thyrotoxicosis, Cushing’s syndrome;
- liver disease: malignant tumors, cirrhosis, hepatitis;
- taking medications of certain groups;
- pathological conditions of the pancreas: chronic or acute pancreatitis, swelling;
- exposure to infection (glucose levels increase due to the influence of the pathogen of the disease or as a result of stress caused by the disease itself);
- lack of insulin during the period of gestation (pregnancy diabetes);
- is temporary – the condition returns to normal after childbirth.
In addition to exceeding the glucose norm, one should not allow a decrease in its level below the minimum permissible indicator. Low blood glucose is called hypoglycemia. This condition is also very dangerous, as the organs do not get enough sugar in sufficient quantities. Most of the difficulties in hypoglycemia are caused by the brain. If he does not receive power, he will simply “turn off” and the person will fall into a coma.
The cause of hypoglycemia is primarily associated with eating disorders. A lack of sugar occurs due to depletion of the body: serious physical exertion, prolonged fasting. Sweets and alcohol cause hypoglycemia, as they first cause a sharp increase in blood glucose levels, and then a sharp decrease.