Type 2 diabetes is a disease that is most common in patients over 45 years of age. In contrast to the first type, this disease in the overwhelming majority of cases is the result of a wrong lifestyle. In particular, it develops in people with obesity and physical inactivity. Therefore, for the normalization of the patient’s condition, exercise is simply necessary. MedAboutMe will tell you how to combine diabetes and sport.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes in the early stages
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease in which cells lose insulin susceptibility. Insulin is responsible for the transport of glucose (energy) from the blood to various tissues and organs. Therefore, with the development of hormone resistance, blood sugar levels increase. And this affects the work of the cardiovascular system (CAS), the kidneys, excess sugar also destroys blood vessels, damages the retina, etc.
Diabetes mellitus is an incurable disease. However, in the case of type 2 diabetes, the patient’s condition can be successfully normalized. The key role here is played not only by medicines, but also by the way of life – nutrition and physical activity. Moreover, in the early stages, changes in mode and diet are often sufficient to treatment of diabetes.
Why do you need physical activity in diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is most common in obese people. Obesity significantly worsens the course of the disease and complicates the diagnosis of concomitant diseases. For example, for diabetics with overweight is characterized by a more pronounced course of cardiovascular diseases:
- Heart failure.
- Ischemic heart disease.
Also, overweight in diabetes increases the risk of developing heart attacks (tissue necrosis) in different organs and stroke. Moderate physical activity allows, first of all, to normalize weight, as well as to adjust the work of the CCC. Therefore, according to the standards of the American Diabetes Association, regular exercise is shown to all diabetics, even patients with severe forms of the disease.
In addition to normalizing weight, physical activity in diabetes will be useful because it:
- Increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, because under loads they require more energy.
- Reduces blood pressure (prevention of complications on the cardiovascular system).
- Improves blood circulation.
- Reduces the “bad” cholesterol, which provokes the development of atherosclerosis.
- Increases muscle and bone mass, the body becomes more resilient.
Moreover, sports normalize the emotional state of a person – stress, anxiety, insomnia disappear. It is known that depressive manifestations can negatively affect the work of the heart, which already suffers from diabetes.
Diabetes: Possible Sports
In order to get the desired result, sports activities for diabetes should be:
- Moderate. Low intensity protects the heart from possible overloads.
- Relatively long. To activate glucose and improve insulin sensitivity, sessions should last 30–40 minutes.
- Regular. The frequency of training should not be less than 3 per week. Ideal small daily exercise at the same time. This will help the body to enter into a rhythm and easier to tune in to exercise.
Type 2 diabetes allows you to engage in such sports:
- Hiking (but not hiking, where blood pressure problems can occur).
- Walking at an accelerated pace.
- Cycling at a moderate pace (mountain cycling is possible only with the permission of a doctor).
- Skiing for short distances.
- Ball games.
In the event that a person did not play sports before the illness, it is better to conduct the first classes in the gymnastics hall under the supervision of not only the coach, but also the doctor. If diabetes is found in a person familiar with the sport, you must first pass tests and examinations. This will help the endocrinologist to decide whether it is possible to continue classes in the chosen sport, how to correct the training, reduce their intensity or leave it at the same level.
In professional sports there are people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Stephen Jeffrey Redgrave rowing, Chris Freeman skiing, Aiden Bale ran a marathon. And yet, experts recommend diabetics to focus on amateur sports, to engage for themselves, not to participate in competitions, where the load can be exceeded.
In diabetes type 2, the following sports are prohibited:
- Scuba diving
- Cross-country skiing, skiing.
- Any kinds of wrestling, boxing, martial arts.
- Long distance running.
- Strength sports – the concept of barbell, bodybuilding, and more.
Fitness and possible complications in diabetics
Despite the fact that fitness Diabetic health benefits, yet people with such a diagnosis during exercise need to carefully monitor their well-being. It is recommended to check blood sugar levels before and after exercise. If the indicator exceeds 13 mmol / l – the training should be postponed.
Diabetes mellitus can lead to two complications during exercise – hypoglycemia (glucose level too low) and hyperglycemia (too high).
- Hypoglycemia is more common in those who use insulin or drugs that lower sugar. During exercise, energy requirements increase, and against the background of medications, a sharp drop in blood glucose is possible. The condition is accompanied by weakness, blurred vision, nausea, sweating, irritability.
- Hyperglycemia results from an excessive release of glucose (glycogen) stores from the liver against the background of the production of hormones that lower the effects of insulin – adrenaline, cortisol and others. Hyperglycemia in diabetes is manifested by thirst, headache, blurred vision, drowsiness, nausea.
Both conditions are dangerous for health, can lead to coma, so if symptoms are detected, you should immediately stop training and measure blood sugar levels. If the indicators confirm hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, depending on its severity, it is necessary to take medicine or call an ambulance.