What is diabetes: symptoms, causes, methods of treatment, life prognosis

Diabetes refers to a group of diseases that are associated with a disorder in the absorption of glucose, as a result of which it develops a complete or relative deficiency of the hormonal substance – insulin, in turn, this leads to hyperglycemia – a persistent high blood sugar level. Normal fasting blood sugar levels in men and women range from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L.

The disease is chronic in nature, during which there is a violation of all types of human metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral, water and salt.

The disease is divided into types 1 and 2, has 4 degrees, each of which is characterized by certain clinical signs. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is most often observed in young people under 40 years of age, the disease develops in a severe form, and in the vast majority of cases, insulin is recommended to maintain the required blood sugar level.

Type 2 diabetes occurs in the elderly, there is no need for insulin for therapy. As a rule, to maintain blood glucose at the target level, a special diet is prescribed, a decrease in body weight. In some situations, treatment is supplemented with sugar-lowering drugs.

The clinical picture of diabetes

In almost all cases, a gradual course of the disease is observed, which over time is manifested by an increase in various symptoms. Exceptionally in rare cases, the patient may develop a high glucose content, which leads to a diabetic coma.

Initial signs of diabetes:

  • Dry mouth.
  • Constant feeling of thirst.
  • The daily volume of urine is increasing.
  • The weight decreases or increases sharply.
  • Dryness and itching of the skin.
  • Propensity to infectious diseases.
  • Muscle weakness, high sweating.

As a rule, all these symptoms signal a malfunction in the human body, so it is necessary to take an analysis for blood glucose. When ignoring the situation, symptoms are observed:

  1. Visual impairment.
  2. Stupefaction.
  3. Wounds that do not heal for a long period of time.
  4. Swelling of the lower extremities.
  5. The development of arterial hypertension.
  6. Pain in the heart, migraine.
  7. The smell of acetone from the patient.

All of the above symptoms indicate the presence of diabetes mellitus, which requires immediate medical treatment.

Diagnostic measures

If diabetes is suspected, a series of diagnostic measures are performed to help confirm or deny the diagnosis. The main diagnostic methods include:

  • A blood test for the sugar in it.
  • Tolerance test.
  • Glycemic profile.
  • Urine analysis for acetone.
  • General urine analysis.
  • Blood biochemistry.

All patients are visited by an endocrinologist, cardiologist, neuropathologist, ophthalmologist and vascular surgeon.

It is a comprehensive examination that helps to establish the correct diagnosis, determine the severity of the course of the disease, its degree, which will help to choose an adequate treatment and adjust the patient’s lifestyle.

Disease therapy

Treatment is always prescribed individually, during which numerous factors are taken into account. The first two stages of therapy are a low-carb diet and optimal physical activity.

If the therapeutic effect is insufficient, sugar-lowering tablets are recommended, and only in extreme cases the doctor prescribes injections with insulin.

Medications for therapy are divided into two types:

  1. Medications that increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin.
  2. Agents that stimulate the pancreas to increase hormone synthesis.

The diet for the patient can be of two types: balanced and unbalanced. The first option implies a decrease in the total calorie content of food, but does not change its qualitative composition. The second option implies a high content of carbohydrates, but low fat.

Such medicinal plants also help lower blood sugar: centaury, clover flowers, cuff sheets, dandelion roots, red rowan berries, peppermint.

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