Diet in diabetes, what can and can not be eaten?
The Importance of Dietotherapy in the Treatment of Diabetes
Many underestimate the importance of proper nutrition in the complex treatment of any disease. In the case of diabetes mellitus, especially the second type, this should not be disputed at all. After all, it is based on a metabolic disorder, which is primarily caused by malnutrition.
Therefore, we can confidently say that in some cases of this disease, diet therapy may be the only correct method of treatment.
Diabetes diet should be aimed at reducing the diet of carbohydrates that are quickly absorbed, as well as fats, easily converted into carbohydrate components or compounds that aggravate the course of diabetes and its complications. If these basic conditions are met, this will partially or completely normalize metabolic processes and blood glucose level. This will eliminate hyperglycemia, which is the main pathogenetic link in the development of diabetes mellitus.
What is eaten with diabetes?
The very first interest of the majority of patients with diabetes is the question of a doctor about food that can be consumed daily. It is necessary to focus on vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. After all, if you exclude the use of glucose as the main source of fast energy, this will lead to a rapid depletion of the natural reserves of energy substances of the body (glycogen) and the breakdown of the protein. To avoid this, there should be a sufficient amount of protein foods, vitamins and microelements in the diet.
Beans with diabetes mellitus
Refers to one of the most powerful sources of the listed substances. Therefore, it should focus on the main donor of protein and amino acid components. Especially it is worth noting the healing properties of white beans. Many diabetics treat her very indifferently, because they do not know how many interesting dishes from this product can be prepared. They will prove to be not only useful, but also delicious. The only restriction for the use of beans can be considered its ability to powerful gas formation in the intestine. Therefore, if a person has a similar propensity, it is better to use beans as a nutritious product limitedly or combine with the use of enzyme preparations, which almost completely eliminates gas formation.
With regard to the amino acid composition of the bean, its most valuable components are tryptophan, valine, methionine, lysine, threonine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine. Some of these amino acids are irreplaceable (those that are not synthesized in the body and must come with food). Among the trace elements, the main importance belongs to vitamins C, B, PP, zinc, potassium, phosphorus and iron. All of them are very important for normal functioning of the organism in conditions of high blood glucose level. Carbohydrate metabolism also affects the beans positively, since these compounds are mainly represented by fructose and sucrose.
Porridge with diabetes mellitus
The most dense place in the diet of a diabetic belongs to buckwheat. It is used in the form of milk porridge or as a component of the second dish. The peculiarity of buckwheat is that it has almost no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, since it maintains glucose level at a constant level, and does not cause its leaps, as it happens with the use of most products.
Other cereals that are recommended for diabetes are oatmeal, wheat, corn and pearl barley. In addition to the richest vitamin composition, they are very easily digested and processed by digestive enzymes. As a result, a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism with the normalization of the level of glycemia. In addition, they are a good energy substrate and an indispensable source of ATP for cells.
What kind of fruit can I eat with diabetes?
This group of foods with diabetes should have a special place. After all, it is in fruits that the most concentrated fiber, vital vitamins and minerals are concentrated. Their concentration is several times higher than in other food products. Carbohydrates are mostly fructose and sucrose, glucose practically does not contain.
As for specific fruits, which are recommended for use in diabetes, it is worth pointing to the special value of only some of them. After all, not everything is allowed to use. Among the favorite fruits of diabetics are grapefruit, lemon, orange, apples, apricots and peaches, pears, pomegranate, dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes, dried apples), berries (cherry, gooseberry, blueberries, all currants, blackberries). Watermelon and sweet melon contain a little more carbohydrate components, so should be consumed in moderation.
Mandarins, grapefruit and lemon
Here is the set of fruits for which the most important accent of every diabetic is to be made.
First, they are all very rich in vitamin C. This compound is one of the most important in the work of enzyme systems and strengthening of the vascular wall.
Secondly, all citrus fruits have a very low glycemic index. This means that the content of carbohydrate components in them that affect the blood glucose level is very small.
Their third advantage is the presence of the strongest antioxidant abilities, which prevents the negative effect of hyperglycemia on the body cells, slowing the progression of complications of diabetes.
In the case of tangerines, there are small remarks for their use in food. First of all, the fruit should be fresh. They are used in raw form or from which fresh is prepared. It is better not to buy juices, especially in regular stores, as they contain sugar and other carbohydrate components that can increase the level of glycemia. Lemon and grapefruit are also used as a separate product or freshly squeezed juice, which is added to water or other foods.
What you can not eat with diabetes?
The most important thing that every diabetic patient should remember is what he should not eat as a food product. It is better not to use those of you whose safety is not known. Otherwise, similar actions can lead to the development of hyperglycemia with the transition to hyperglycemic and other types of coma, or accelerate the progression of complications of diabetes. The list of prohibited foods is clearly shown in the form of a table.
Can I have honey, dates and coffee for diabetes?
These foods are among the favorite for many people. Naturally, with the development of diabetes it is very difficult to give up those irreplaceable "life companions" who accompanied a person daily. Therefore it is very important to shed light on the true influence of coffee, honey and dates on the course of diabetes.
First of all, it is worthwhile to dwell on the role of honey in carbohydrate metabolism and its influence on the level of glucose. A lot of contradictory and ambiguous data is published in various publications and articles. But it is worth noting the main points from which the logical conclusions will follow. Honey itself contains a very large amount of fructose. This carbohydrate component does not have the ability to strongly influence the level of glucose. One can not but note the fact that for the assimilation and metabolism of fructose you need insulin, which in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus is not able to fully exercise its basic function. This can lead to increased glycemia in diabetics, which is not characteristic of a healthy person.
Based on the above data, one can draw such conclusions about honey in diabetes:
1. Honey can and should be eaten daily;
2. The daily amount of this food should not exceed 1-2 tablespoons;
3. It is best to eat honey in the morning on an empty stomach, drinking it with a glass of water. This will promote its transformation into glycogen, which will become the main source of energy and nutrients for the body for the whole day.
Dates are another controversial product for diabetics. On the one hand, the high content of easily digestible carbohydrates and the high caloric content of this food product should cause a strict rejection of their use. On the other hand, a rich vitamin composition, especially vitamin A and potassium, is very important for preventing diabetic complications.
Therefore, with respect to dates, you can give such recommendations:
- Do not use them at all to diabetics with a serious course of this disease;
- With an easy flow of diabetes or a good adjustment of it with a diet and tableted hypoglycemic preparations, a limited number of dates is allowed;
- The daily number of fruits in case of permitted intake should not exceed 100 grams.
No one can challenge its useful properties. But we must not forget about its harm. It is better to give up coffee in diabetes at any stage of the development of this disease. First of all, it concerns a strong drink or any of its concentration in case of severe diabetes during insulin therapy.
And although coffee has virtually no effect on carbohydrate metabolism directly, it stimulates the vasomotor center and has a direct relaxing effect on the vascular wall, which leads to an expansion of the blood vessels of the heart, skeletal muscles and kidneys, while the tone of the cerebral arteries rises (causes narrowing of the cerebral vessels, which is accompanied by a decrease in cerebral blood flow and oxygen pressure in the brain). The use of light coffee in a small amount of great harm to the body with diabetes of moderate severity will not bring.
Nuts with diabetes mellitus
There are foods that are literally a concentrator of certain nutrients. Nuts are one of them. They contain in their composition cellulose, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D-3, calcium and a lot of potassium. In the treatment of diabetes, these substances occupy a special place, since they directly affect carbohydrate metabolism, reducing the level of glycemia.
In addition, under their action, the damaged cells of the internal organs are restored, which stops the progression of complications of diabetes. Therefore, any nuts are vital to diabetic foods. It is advisable to consider the influence of some types of nuts on this disease.
It is an indispensable nutrient for the brain, which, with diabetes, feels a shortage of energy compounds. After all, glucose, which is the main source of energy for brain cells, does not come to them.
Walnut is enriched with alpha-linolenic acid, manganese and zinc. These trace elements play a major role in reducing blood sugar levels. Essential fatty acids slow the progression of diabetic angiopathy of internal organs and atherosclerotic lesion of the lower limbs.
A meager carbohydrate composition should close all questions about the advisability of eating walnuts in diabetes mellitus. You can eat them as an independent dish, and include in the composition of various vegetable and fruit salads.
This nut is distinguished by a particularly concentrated amino acid composition. However, it is known that vegetable proteins differ in the insufficient content of essential amino acids, and especially lysine, threonine and tryptophan, which makes them insufficiently high-grade to ensure the synthesis of their own body proteins. Exception can be only proteins of legumes and algae, where these amino acids are still present.
Therefore, the use of peanuts in diabetics can partially fill the daily requirement of the organism in proteins and amino acids. Proteins contained in peanuts are quickly included in metabolic processes and are used for the synthesis of high-density glycoproteins in the liver. They remove cholesterol from the vessels and contribute to its decay.
It is literally the champion in the content of calcium among all nuts. Therefore, it is indicated with progressive diabetic osteoarthropathy (damage to bones and joints). The use of 9-12 almonds per day will bring in the body various microelements, which have a beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism and the course of diabetes in general.
Another interesting product for diabetics. First, they have very interesting taste qualities. In addition, they have very useful properties due to the high content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, B and D vitamins, ascorbic acid.
Protein composition of pine nuts, as well as walnuts is very relevant for the correction of complications of diabetes. A powerful immunomodulating effect of this food product has been detected, which is important for the prevention of colds and suppurative processes on the lower limbs in people with diabetic foot syndrome and microangiopathy.
All these types of nuts are an indispensable food additive in the diet of every diabetic. Their composition is represented exclusively by protein and mineral components, which do not cause disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism and contribute to the prevention of diabetic complications.
What is the glycemic index of foods?
Everyone who has diabetes, especially the second type, is obliged to know about the concept of the glycemic index. With this term, the nutrition must be correlated after the establishment of such a diagnosis. It is an indicator of the ability of specific foods to cause an increase in blood glucose (sugar) levels.
Of course, it's very hard and tedious to sit and calculate what you can afford to eat, and what will have to abstain from. If in a mild course of diabetes such a procedure is less relevant, then in severe forms with the complexity of selecting corrective doses of insulin, it becomes simply vital. After all, a diet is the main tool in the hands of people with type 2 diabetes. Do not forget this.
Glycemic index - an indicator of the effect of food after consumption on blood sugar.
When the product is given a low glycemic index, it means that when it is used, the blood sugar level rises slowly. The higher the glycemic index, the faster the blood sugar level rises after consuming the product and the higher the instantaneous blood sugar level after eating.
Therefore, all foods with high GI need to be excluded from the diet! Exceptions are only those products that, in addition to affecting the carbohydrate metabolism, have good healing properties in the treatment of complications of diabetes. In this case, despite the glycemic index, which is slightly higher than the average indicators, their use is not prohibited, but only limited. In this case, it is advisable to reduce the total glycemic index of the food ration at the expense of other, less important products.
According to the generally accepted classification of the glycemic index, it can be divided into the following types:
- Low - the indicator is from 10 to 40 units;
- Average - fluctuations of figures from 41 to 70 units;
- High - the index numbers above 70 units.
Thus, thanks to the glycemic index, you do not have to deal with nutritionists and endocrinologists for a long time to select the right diet. Now, every diabetic with specially developed tables, in which the glycemic index of each food product is indicated, is able to choose the diet that suits him specifically. This will take into account not only the benefits for the body, but also the patient's desire to eat a specific food product at a certain moment.
A person can regulate his diet, taking into account the glycemic index and blood glucose levels against the background of their use. After all, diabetes is a disease not of one day, but of all life. You need to be able to adapt to it, primarily by choosing the right diet.
Table (list) of products with a high and low glycemic index
Products with a low glycemic index
Products with an average glycemic index
Products with a high glycemic index
Diet №9 with diabetes mellitus
The basic diet for type 2 diabetes is table №9 according to Pevzner. The main purpose of his appointment - correction of carbohydrate metabolism, prevention of abnormalities in lipid and protein metabolism in the body against the background of high glucose levels.
General characteristics of diet №9 look like this:
- Reducing the caloric content of food by reducing carbohydrates and lipids (fats) of animal origin;
- High content of vegetable fats and proteins;
- Exclusion of sweets and sugar, as the main sources of easily digestible carbohydrates;
- Restriction of consumption of kitchen salt and spices;
- Preference for boiled and stewed dishes instead of fried and smoked;
- Dishes should not be too hot or cold;
- Fractional and main regular meals at the same time;
- Use of sugar substitutes: sorbitol and xylitol;
- Moderate use of fluid (daily amount of 1300-1600 ml);
- Clear use of permitted products and exclusion of prohibited products taking into account their glycemic index.
Recipes for dishes with diabetes mellitus
There are actually so many of them that a separate book is needed for the description. But on some of them it is possible to stop and within the framework of an introductory article.
In fact, there is no need to resort to any standardized dishes. After all, you can think of them yourself. The main thing is that they are prepared from the approved food products.
Approximate weekly menu for diabetes mellitus