In Europe, if a patient with diabetes disrupts the order of treatment and admits a hypoglycemic crisis, he can be punished by depriving him of his driving license. Such a strict approach to the responsibility of a person for their health and treatment. For the time being, we don’t always succeed in driving people to medical examinations. That is why “untreated” diabetes in Russia is 85% of the total number of patients. Such is the alarming statistics.
The diagnosis of diabetes in our country is 4.5 million people. But in reality there are at least twice as many patients as up to 10 million. Moreover, as doctors say, 85% of them “do not reach the goal of treatment”, that is, either they are not treated at all, or they are treated ineffectively.
Why it happens? Yes, because diabetes can already be in full control in the body, but a person does not know about it and “earns” serious complications. He comes to the doctor because his eyesight has deteriorated or heart problems have worsened, and only after being examined he finds out that diabetes is to blame.
Rule of halves
So, out of 9-10 million Russians with diabetes, only half have been diagnosed. Of these 4.5 million, it reaches the goal of treatment (and the goal is quite specific – to reduce and maintain the normal level of glucose in the blood), again, only half (about 1.5 million people). And only every second of these 1.5 million lives without complications. So the doctors are sounding the alarm and talking about the “epidemic”, because the number of patients every year becomes more and more. By 2030, according to the forecasts of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the incidence in Russia will increase by 1.5 times.
Reaching goals in the treatment of diabetes is not always easy. This is bad news. But there is a good one: it is a disease, the course of which depends largely on the patient himself. And such doctor’s advice how to take care of proper nutrition, to give up bad habits and not to forget aboutphysical activity is the most necessary therapeutic purposes.
Of course, we need effective medications. With type 1 diabetes, when the body completely stops producing insulin, you need to constantly enter it into the body. But 90-95% of all cases of the disease is type 2 diabetes, when insulin is not sufficiently produced or poorly absorbed. Here, sometimes need drugs that reduce the level of glucose. And in some neglected cases, it is also impossible to do without insulin. But it is better not to bring to a serious condition. And for this you need to perform five simple steps.
- Assess the degree of risk
Age. Usually, type 2 diabetes gets sick after 40 years. Symptoms appear gradually, so a person for a long time does not suspect that he is sick.
Heredity. If one of the parents has diabetes, the risk of becoming ill is greater.
Excess weight. Many people with type 2 diabetes have been overweight for a long time. But adipose tissue, in fact, is another hormonal organ that affects metabolism. The cells of the adipose tissue poorly absorb insulin, and as a result, the blood glucose level rises.
Unhealthy diet, hypodynamia. This is a direct path to the fat men with the ensuing consequences.
Stress, smoking, bad ecology. All this increases the risk of getting sick. Two out of three people with diabetes are citizens.
- Take care of proper nutrition.
Food should be diverse, we need high-grade proteins, including those of animal origin – lean meat, fish, milk, dairy products.
The rate of vegetables and fruits – five servings per day. A serving is a volume that fits in a handful. This is one small or half a large apple, a pair of tangerines, a small cup of lettuce.
Saturated fat should be no more than 1/3 of the daily value, the rest – vegetable oils. It is necessary to limit the amount of sour cream, butter, fatty cheese, sausages with sausages, because they have a lot of “hidden” fat.
“Fast” carbohydrates are harmful – sugar, sweets, pastries, ice cream, sweet soda – the less, the better. That’s right – fractional, 5-6 times a day in small portions (in the amount of about a glass).
The normal rate of weight loss: 0.5-1 kg per week, it does not harm health.
- Recall Physical Loads
The main task – without fanaticism, but regularly. It is not necessary to sweat oneself through training. But to pick up a pleasant activity and do at least 30 minutes 3-4 times a week – that’s what WHO recommends. Exactly physical activity is one of the best ways to stabilize blood glucose levels.
If you are not friends with sports, start small: for example, hiking. Only 30 minutes of such activity 5 days a week is well protected from the development of type 2 diabetes. Before starting training, ask the doctor to assess your physical condition and select the optimal load.
Regular moderate classes are much more useful than intensive, but rare. That is, it is better 5 times a week for half an hour than 2.5 hours at a time.
Choose an activity of your liking: you need to do it with pleasure, and not under a stick. If there is no company, get a dog and walk it in the morning and in the evening. At the same time, “walk” themselves.
- Listen to the body
There are symptoms that we may ignore for a long time, but they, like red flags, indicate that you may have diabetes.
You need to be alert if you have: Often there is a strong thirst; Frequent urination; If you get hurt, scratches and wounds heal longer than usual; Vision deteriorated. Or if You feel weakness, weakness, lethargy, no strength for anything.
- Do not postpone the visit to the doctor
If you have a least one symptom of the above, seem End okrinologu. The doctor will conduct the necessary research, establish the diagnosis and begin treatment.
By the way, the easiest blood test for sugar can be done independently. After 40 years, this “control” test must be performed regularly.
Diabetes is equally threatening to both developed and poor countries. This is a global problem. In Europe, China, North Africa, as in Russia, the incidence rate is approximately 9% of the total population. In India, slightly lower – 8.5%, in the USA and Canada – higher, about 12.9%. These data were presented at the International Conference on Diabetes in Copenhagen.
“A similar way of life with low physical activity and unbalanced nutrition is characteristic of the population of developed countries, especially citizens,” Lars Fruergor, head of the Danish pharmaceutical company , explained to the RG. Jorgensen . “In poor countries, the majority of the population cannot afford high-quality food, they consume carbohydrates and sugar with excess, and there is often a lack of protein in the daily diet.”
According to the professor, even in developed Europe there are problems with early diagnosis. “There is a medical examination program in Russia, and this is important: if a person passes it, they do the necessary tests and detect the disease on time,” said Lars Jørgensen . “In the EU, in particular in Denmark, screening programs are not included in medical insurance and dictate to the patient The need for such research is not a doctor. Each of us is responsible for himself. But, for example, if a driver with diabetes twice permits the development of a glycemic crisis, violating the treatment regimen, he may be deprived of the right to drive a car, because he can be dangerous on the road. “
In European countries, it is becoming increasingly serious about the need for early detection of diabetes. In Denmark, a special fund is organized, which funds the diabetes prevention program. 7 billion DKK is spent not only on improving diagnostics, but also on working with patients to ensure their adherence to treatment. It is important that the patient follows the rules of nutrition, actively moves, constantly independently monitors the level of glucose in the blood and regularly undergo examinations, fulfilled all doctor’s prescriptions.
Technical innovations come to the aid of patients: for example, a syringe pen has been developed for injecting insulin with a memory function that “tells” the patient that it is time to give an injection. And in Sweden a pilot program is now being tested, thanks to which the patient and the doctor can, by entering data on the treatment regimen and the patient’s lifestyle, get a prediction of the disease.