Diabetes is divided into two types. The first is insulin-dependent or juvenile, and the second is an insulin-independent elderly. Two million Russians suffer from diabetes, 300 thousand of them suffer from diabetes. The second type of disease is growing among young people.
In addition to genetics, many more roads lead to diabetes. Among them, alcohol, smoking, drugs, taking medications, stressful conditions, obesity, physical inactivity, various endocrine diseases, diseases of the pancreas, liver and many others occupy a prominent place.
For example, alcohol inhibits the formation of glycogen in the liver and contributes to hypoglycemia, a drop in blood sugar. Sweet alcoholic beverages cause the opposite condition – hyperglycemia. If the retina is affected, then any type of alcohol is contraindicated due to complications, up to blindness. Toxic substances of tobacco inhibit biochemical processes in the liver and pancreas, contributing to diabetes.
If a pregnant woman suffers from diabetes, then sugar fluctuations from the norm, both in the direction of increase – hyperglycemia, and decrease – hypoglycemia – can cause coma. Toxicosis, vascular complications on the placenta, retina, hypertension, urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, child injuries during childbirth, cesarean delivery, inability to breastfeed a baby due to a small amount of milk are pitfalls on the way of a pregnant woman to give birth.
Does this mean that a woman should abandon the function given to her by nature – to have a child? Of course not! Many give birth and raise children to their joy. This is possible under the condition of stable compensation of blood sugar at all stages of fetal development – from conception to birth. The following indicators can be an indicator of disease compensation: fasting blood glucose 5.0–6.0 mmol / l; two hours after eating, 8.9–9.9 and at bedtime, 6.0–7.0 mmol / L. In each case, the endocrinologist will determine the norm for the pregnant woman.
For home control, there are glucometers and test strips, they are simple, convenient and reliable. Due to the timely control of blood sugar, it is possible to select the optimal dose of insulin, calorie intake and physical activity. If sugar does not “jump”, then it should be determined once a day, or even less often.
If it is unstable, then you have to resort to control four times: before breakfast, lunch, dinner and sleep. If there are no blood glucose meters or strips for determining blood sugar, you can use strips and tapes to control sugar in the urine. True, this is not a very reliable method and it does not detect hypoglycemia, nevertheless, it can be used. The efforts of the endocrinologist and obstetrician should be supported by the pregnant woman, who at the time got into the maternity ward for dispensary registration.
The components of successful gestation and the prevention of diabetes complications include dieting. Since calories are spent on two, excess calorie intake is permissible by about 5 kcal / kg. Easily digestible carbohydrates are limited: sugar, honey, chocolate, muffin. Sucrose substitutes should not be used due to unproven safety. You need to eat three times a day with a light snack for the night. Protein intake should be sufficient, but not more than 1.5 g / kg / day, and fats should be limited. Fiber bran, peas, beans slows down the absorption of sugars, thereby compensating for the increase in plasma glucose after eating. Refuse coffee, as it reduces the sensitivity of pancreatic cells to insulin.
Alcohol and tobacco are friends of diabetes. Hormones, diuretic hypothiazide, a decrease in potassium and magnesium in the blood, as well as some drugs for the treatment of hypertension are not good for him.
Exercise in diabetes has a dual effect. Insulin deficiency during exercise can cause an increase in blood sugar, and vice versa: the so-called exogenous, internal insulin can trigger a decrease in sugar levels. If the pregnant woman is going to do physical exercises or some other loads are coming, then it is necessary to additionally eat something or increase the dose of insulin.
The main medicine for treating type 1 diabetes in pregnant women is simple and long-acting human insulin. Usually, a two-time subcutaneous injection of the drug is prescribed. The need for it in the first trimester is lower and increases after 24 weeks, and after childbirth it quickly decreases and even returns to normal if diabetes was not before pregnancy. The multiplicity of administration and the dose of insulin changes the endocrinologist.
Help in the treatment of diabetes is herbal medicine. Plowed clover, alfalfa, cuff, cinnamon, centaury, bean leaves, blueberry leaves, cabbage, avocado and ginseng have a sugar-lowering effect
. Reliable and harmless collection – from clover, cuffs, dried cakes, taken in five tablespoons each. One tablespoon of the mixture is brewed with boiling water, infused for 2-3 hours. The infusion is taken in a quarter cup three times a day half an hour before meals. Well reduces sugar infusion of dry blueberry leaves and bean leaves. A tablespoon of each is brewed with two glasses of boiling water, infused for 3 hours. After filtering, the infusion is taken a quarter cup before meals three times a day. You can use one bean. Boil 20 g of dry chopped pods in a liter of water for up to 3 hours. After cooling, filter and take half a glass 4-5 times a day. Fresh cabbage and avocado salad also lowers blood sugar.
During breastfeeding, the woman’s energy requirement increases by about 500 kcal / day, and this requires an increase in the dose of insulin.