Tests for diabetes: what tests to pass, how to check for the presence of the disease

Often, people suffering from endocrine disorders attribute their symptoms to age, chronic fatigue, lack of sleep, and so on.

Let’s analyze what tests for diabetes each person needs to take in order to find out about their condition in time, and therefore, protect themselves from the serious consequences of high blood glucose.

What symptoms should be checked for the presence of diabetes in the clinic?

An analysis that allows you to determine the content of glucose in the blood is available to everyone – it can be taken in absolutely any medical institution, both paid and public.

Symptoms that indicate that you should see a doctor immediately:

  • a significant jump in weight (gain or loss) without major changes in diet;
  • dry mouth, frequent thirst;
  • slow healing of wounds, abrasions and cuts;
  • weakness and / or drowsiness;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • nausea (rarely – vomiting);
  • skin itching;
  • decreased visual acuity;
  • rapid heartbeat and breathing;
  • frequent urge to urinate, an increase in the daily volume of urine.

The severity of symptoms depends on the duration of the disease, the individual characteristics of the human body, and the type of diabetes.

For example, its most common form, which is called the second, is characterized by a gradual deterioration in the condition, so many people notice problems in their bodies already at an advanced stage.

What kind of doctor should I see if I have diabetes?

As a rule, most people who suspect the presence of metabolic disorders in their body first turn to a therapist.

Having ordered a blood test for glucose, the doctor evaluates its results and, if necessary, sends the person to an endocrinologist.

If the sugar is normal, the task of the doctor is to look for other causes that cause unpleasant symptoms. You can also contact an endocrinologist on your own, since the treatment of diabetes of any type is the competence of just such a doctor.

The only problem is that not all state medical institutions have this specialist.

What tests should be done to check for diabetes?

Diagnosis of diabetes includes several studies at once. Thanks to an integrated approach, the doctor can identify the severity of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, the type of disease and other features, which allows him to prescribe adequate therapy.

So the following research is needed:

blood test to determine the level of glucose . It is given strictly on an empty stomach, from a finger or a vein. The result is recognized as normal in the range from 4.1 to 5.9 mmol / l;

determination of the level of glycated hemoglobin . The most important summary indicator that makes it easy to diagnose the severity of disorders in the body. Displays the average blood glucose level for the three months prior to biomaterial sampling. Unlike a standard blood test, which is highly dependent on diet and many related factors, glycated hemoglobin allows you to see the real picture of the disease. Norm up to 30 years: less than 5.5%; up to 50 – no more than 6.5%, at an older age – up to 7%;

Glucose tolerance test . Such a diagnostic method (with a load) allows you to determine how the body metabolizes sugar. Blood is taken on an empty stomach, then the patient is given a glucose solution to drink, after one and two hours the biomaterial is taken again. A value up to 7.8 mmol / l is considered normal, from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol / l – a pre- diabetic state, above 11.1 – diabetes mellitus;

determination of C-reactive protein . Shows how affected the pancreas. Norm: 298 to 1324 mmol / l. The examination is carried out with a hereditary predisposition to diabetes, during pregnancy, and also if the glucose content in the blood is normal, and clinical signs of carbohydrate metabolism are present.

“12817”] Be sure to pass a general and biochemical blood test, as well as a clinical study of urine.

What is the name of a laboratory blood test to confirm diabetes?

In addition to the tests listed above, the delivery of which is mandatory when diagnosing diabetes, additional examinations may be prescribed.

Here are the titles of additional studies:

  • insulin level;
  • determination of a marker of diabetes;
  • detection of antibodies to insulin and pancreatic beta cells.

These tests are more “narrow”, their feasibility must be confirmed by a doctor.

“12817”] If identifying or eliminating the risk of diabetes is an individual initiative, it is better to start with the four studies that were listed above. They allow you to see the real picture of the disease.

Differential diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2

This type of diagnosis is usually carried out during the initial examination to identify a specific type of diabetes. As a basis, the content of the level of insulin in the human blood is taken.

Depending on the results, one of the forms of diabetes is distinguished:

  • angiopathic ;
  • neurotic;
  • combined.

Also, the analysis allows you to clearly separate the already existing disease and the condition called ” prediabetes “.

In the second case, the correction of nutrition and lifestyle allows you to avoid aggravating the situation, even without the use of medications.

“12817”] It is important for the doctor to find out whether diabetes is renal, insipid, alimentary, or others. This is necessary for proper therapy.

Patient examination plan during medical examination

A person who has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus must register at a polyclinic at the place of residence, at a specialized center or at a paid medical institution.

Purpose: to control the course of treatment, as well as to prevent the development of complications that can lead to a significant deterioration in the condition.

So, the follow-up plan is:

blood tests (clinical and biochemical) . Rented twice a year. Allow to identify the presence of complications of diabetes at their earliest stage;

urinalysis . Rented once a quarter. Since the urinary system is the first to suffer in violation of carbohydrate metabolism, its condition requires enhanced control;

daily urine for microalbuminuria . They are given to eliminate the risk of developing such a formidable complication as diabetic nephropathy. As a rule, the study is carried out once a year;

ECG . It is prescribed with a frequency of one to several times in 12 months (depending on the age of the patient and the state of the cardiovascular system). Detects signs of ischemia, rhythm disturbances, etc. It is necessary, since diabetes increases the risk of developing pathologies of the heart and blood vessels several times;

Fluorography . It is prescribed at intervals of once a year, since diabetics have reduced immunity, which allows viruses and bacteria to pass through, which significantly increases the risk of developing tuberculosis;

visiting an ophthalmologist . The doctor checks visual acuity, intraocular pressure, vascular condition, and so on. Purpose: to exclude the development of complications of diabetes, and if they are present, to select adequate therapy;

Ultrasound of the kidneys . It is carried out regularly if diabetes is at an advanced stage. The study allows you to notice the development of renal failure and other complications in time;

Dopplerography of the veins of the lower extremities . It is prescribed if there is excess weight and complaints of varicose veins.

“12817”] Women are advised not to forget to regularly visit their gynecologist so as not to miss the onset of the development of various diseases of the genital area, which progress rapidly against the background of diabetes.

Algorithm for determining the level of sugar in the blood at home

The easiest and most common way is to use a glucometer . This device should be available to everyone diagnosed with diabetes.

Rules for taking blood:

  • wash hands thoroughly with soap;
  • lightly massage the puncture area so that the blood clings to this place;
  • treat the area with an antiseptic, for example, with a special disposable napkin or cotton wool soaked in alcohol;
  • sampling with a strictly disposable sterile needle. On modern glucometers , it is enough to press the “Start” button, and the puncture will occur automatically;
  • when blood appears, apply it to the reagent (test strip);
  • Apply a cotton swab dipped in alcohol to the puncture site.

A person only needs to evaluate the result and write it down on paper with the date and time. Since doctors recommend analyzing the sugar level several times a day, you will have to keep such a “diary” regularly.

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