A woman who does not suffer from serious illnesses and is absolutely healthy cannot be one hundred percent sure that her pregnancy is proceeding normally, without complications.
But as for pregnant mothers with diabetes, it is even more difficult here.
Every young woman suffering from this ailment and wanting to have a child puts at risk not only her life, but also the life of her unborn baby.
Serious disruptions in the endocrine system can subsequently lead to fetopathy of the fetus in pregnancy diabetes.
What is diabetic fetopathy
Diabetic fetopathy is a dangerous disease that occurs as a result of the presence of diabetes in a woman who carries a baby under her heart. In her body, you can find a systematic increase in the concentration of glucose levels.
With this ailment, the state of the fetus changes dramatically, and very serious failures occur in the performance of its developing organs and systems.
This has an extremely negative effect on the functioning of large vessels, organs of the excretory system and the baby’s pancreas.
It is known that in women suffering from high blood sugar levels, the course of pregnancy will depend on several important factors:
- type of disease;
- the main features of the treatment;
- the presence of any serious complications.
If a woman in a position suffers from a disease accompanied by a high concentration of glucose, then this suggests that her pregnancy will be very difficult. As a rule, pregnancy ends not with natural childbirth, but with a caesarean section.
“12817”] It is important to note that in the presence of obesity of the fetus, preterm labor can begin, which is noted in about twenty-four percent of all cases.
Development of diabetic fetopathy and risks for newborns
The main cause of the onset of the disease is hyperglycemia, since in women in the position, the course of diabetes mellitus is very unstable, which significantly complicates the proper control of the condition of the baby and mother.
In most cases, this leads to serious vascular problems.
It is very important to note that diabetic fetopathy of the fetus, as well as infectious, can occur if the patient was found to have a chronic increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood before conception or when hyperglycemia occurred during gestation.
Diabetic embryophetopathy has the following mechanism of appearance: a large amount of sugar enters the fetus through the placenta, as a result of which the pancreas begins to intensively produce its own hormone in an incalculable volume. The increased sugar content, under the influence of insulin, simply turns into fatty accumulations, as a result of which the unborn baby begins to grow at a rapid pace, along with the simultaneous deposition of lipid reserves.
With gestational diabetes, when the pancreas refuses to produce the required amount of insulin, a noticeable deterioration in health can be observed from about the twentieth week of gestation. At this stage, the placenta correctly performs its main function, which accelerates the formation of chorionic gonadotropin. But the counterinsular hormone reduces the sensitivity of certain tissues to the pancreatic hormone, which makes the transformation of glycemia very unstable.
“12817”] To protect the life and health of an unborn child, you need to be regularly monitored by an obstetrician who will monitor his condition.
Nuances affecting the development of the disease
As you know, diabetic fetopathy of the fetus is determined by ultrasound. But, it is advisable to see a specialist as often as possible in order to save the life of the baby. Usually, the following nuances can influence the occurrence of this disease:
- if gestational diabetes mellitus has already been transferred;
- the age of a woman carrying a child exceeds twenty-five years;
- if the weight of the fetus is more than four kilograms;
- when a woman is overweight in position;
- if the expectant mother rapidly gains body weight during pregnancy, which reaches more than twenty kilograms by the end of her pregnancy.
Few people know that all of the above factors have a strong effect on the growing organism in the womb. Since a large amount of glucose penetrates directly into the baby’s bloodstream, by the twelfth week of gestation, his pancreas is not able to produce its own insulin.
As a result of this phenomenon, there is a likelihood of compensatory hyperplasia of organ cells, which can lead to hyperinsulinemia. As a result, this can become an impetus for an instant decrease in sugar levels, unnatural weight gain in a child, as well as the emergence of various serious complications.
“12817”] In newborns with diabetic fetopathy, the presence of jaundice indicates the course of serious pathologies in the liver. And they need immediate treatment with special drugs.
Symptoms of the disease
It is possible to determine the presence of a disease in a baby’s body by the following, pronounced signs:
- large body weight, which can reach more than six kilograms;
- atypical shade of the skin, which ranges from brown to purple;
- the presence of a petechial rash, which manifests itself in the form of small subcutaneous hemorrhages;
- swelling of soft tissues;
- swollen face;
- a very large belly, which appears due to a large accumulation of fatty deposits;
- wide, well-developed shoulder girdle;
- short lower and upper limbs;
- breathing disorder;
- decreased muscle tone;
- loss of the sucking reflex;
- decreased activity, which is instantly replaced by hyperactivity.
“12817”] If you find at least one of the above symptoms, you should immediately contact a qualified specialist to find out the reasons.
You should not delay going to the doctor, as even one day can worsen the condition of the newborn.
The causes of the disease
Diabetic embryophetopathy can result from diseases such as:
• Diabetes mellitus or the so-called pre-diabetic condition. In the latter state, insulin production can be reduced or simply disrupted. The disease can develop in this way: a large amount of sugar enters the baby through the mother’s placenta, which is why the pancreas begins to produce an impressive amount of insulin. Excessive amounts of sugar under the influence of this hormone are converted into fatty deposits, which leads to rapid growth of the fetus and increased fat deposition.
• Gestational diabetes in the mother is a phenomenon during which the pancreas is unable to produce impressive amounts of the hormone of the same name. Because of this, a woman carrying a fetus is diagnosed with a high concentration of glucose in the blood. As you know, this condition can develop around the second half of pregnancy.
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Treatment of diabetic fetopathy of the fetus
If the mother has been diagnosed with this disease, then appropriate measures must be taken immediately. This will help save the child’s life.
If the ailment was discovered during pregnancy, then throughout the entire period the woman must independently control glycemia and blood pressure.
If necessary, she should be given additional insulin therapy.
For prevention, sugar levels should be monitored every few hours. If necessary, the sugar concentration is adjusted with insulin or glucose. The latter method allows you to prevent the occurrence of hypoglycemia.
Do not forget about taking special vitamins, which are extremely necessary during gestation. You also need to follow a proper diet and make sure that the daily calorie content of meals does not exceed 3200 kilocalories. It is imperative to heed the advice of doctors in order for the child’s condition to be stable.
Women should take their own health and the condition of the baby more seriously, therefore, in an interesting position, excessively sweet and fatty foods should be minimized to a minimum. But by the end of pregnancy, the diet should be enriched with easily digestible carbohydrates, in particular fresh fruit.
It is important to monitor your blood glucose closely during the birth of your baby.
If the glucose concentration is slightly lowered, then it will be difficult for a woman to give birth to a baby due to insufficient energy.
This can end very badly: the mother may lose consciousness during the birth of the baby or, in the worst case, even fall into a so-called hypoglycemic coma.
Therefore, it is important to take care of your own health and prevent such unforeseen reactions of the body.
Warning. If there is a suspicion that a woman has hypoglycemia, then you need to immediately stop it with fast carbohydrates. It will be enough to drink one glass of ordinary sweet water and the general condition will instantly stabilize.
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If diabetes is complicated by hypertension, the need for proper nutrition cannot be ignored. The basic principles of nutrition with a combination of diseases are set out in this material.
Diabetic fetopathy is a difficult and undesirable phenomenon that can seriously harm not only the mother, but also her unborn baby. Therefore, if a mother suffers from diabetes, then she needs to take pregnancy much more seriously.
Regular visits to the doctor, careful adherence to a balanced diet, intake of vitamins, and control of blood glucose levels during pregnancy guarantee a favorable outcome. With a responsible attitude, you can not worry about the health of the future baby, since nothing will threaten him.