Each person in the blood contains sugar (more precisely glucose) – a source of energy for the body. Normally, fasting blood sugar levels range from 3.3 to 5.5 millimoles per liter, in other units – 60-100 mg%. After a meal, it can rise to 7.8 mmol / L (140 mg%). this is also the norm. A constant increase in blood sugar above normal values is a disease called diabetes mellitus.
Where does blood sugar come from? The main source is food carbohydrates, the other is stored in the liver.
In order for sugar to become energy for cells, it must pass into them from the blood. How does this happen? Special pancreatic cells (beta cells) secrete the hormone insulin. As a kind of “key”, it opens the cells of the body, allowing sugar from the blood to enter them. If this complex relationship is broken, sugar does not enter the cells and remains high in the blood.
The mechanisms of diabetes are very complex. There are 2 main types. Type 1 is associated with a genetic predisposition to this disease (that is, a person was born with it, although his relatives did not have diabetes) and some external factor (for example, infection). In other words, there are no “keys” and only insulin introduced from the outside can replace them. With type 2 disease, heredity and overweight play a large role.
Typically, type 1 diabetes mellitus develops before the age of 30, type 2 after 40. The body weight of type 1 patients is normal or reduced, and type 2 is often overweight. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and is about 95%. In connection with an improper lifestyle (excessive nutrition, low physical activity), an epidemic of type 2 diabetes is observed.
Unfortunately, very often diabetes begins imperceptibly, and a person learns that he is sick quite by accident, having passed a blood test for sugar. What signs indicate a large increase in blood sugar? Dry mouth, thirst, frequent urination, weakness, weight loss (with the 2nd type of disease may not be), increased appetite, poor wound healing, itching and dry skin.
A pronounced lack of insulin in the body can cause a diabetic coma, a serious condition with loss of consciousness, life-threatening.
Every person suffering from extra pounds, high blood pressure, and especially having relatives with diabetes, you must periodically determine blood sugar.
Remember: in no case do not treat diabetes with folk remedies, various food additives, using extrasensory perception and other non-traditional methods. It is pointless and even dangerous!