Men rarely go to doctors. They prefer to put up with unpleasant symptoms and not report any health problems. Such “masculinity” often turns into the development of serious diseases. One of such ailments is diabetes mellitus. This pathology threatens with serious consequences in the absence of timely treatment. If therapy is started in the early stages, then the risk of complications can be minimized.
The content of the article
A pathology in which glucose is not distributed between tissues, but is concentrated in the blood, is commonly called diabetes mellitus. The disease is very common. In terms of the incidence rate, it ranks third, yielding the primacy of oncology and vascular ailments. All organs need glucose. Liver, muscles and adipose tissues are especially in need of “natural sugar”. In a healthy body, the hormone of the pancreas, insulin, acts as a distributor of glucose. If the latter does not cope with its task, then the concentration of sugar in the blood increases.
Types of diabetes
Doctors distinguish two forms of diabetes mellitus:
- 1 type. For certain reasons, the pancreas dramatically reduces insulin production. Lack of hormone leads to the development of hyperglycemia.
- Type 2. Insulin receptor damage occurs. The hormone is produced in sufficient volume, but the organs do not receive insulin signals and are not replenished with the necessary glucose. Further progression of diabetes mellitus leads to a decrease in hormone synthesis.
The norm of blood sugar in men
In a healthy mature man, the sugar rate varies in the range of 3.3-5.5 mmol / l. But these are average readings. Age influences sugar concentration.
Doctors recommend that all people monitor their blood glucose levels regularly. If a man is not included in the risk group for diabetes, then it is enough to take the test 1-2 times a year. For those representatives of the stronger sex who have high chances of getting an ailment, it is advisable to purchase a home apparatus for measuring sugar ( glucometer ) and monitor the glucose concentration once a quarter.
The causes of diabetes in men
The development of diabetes in men is dictated by insulin deficiency or tissue immunity to the hormone. External and internal factors can cause such violations.
Causes of type 1 diabetes
The following reasons can lead to the disease:
- Heredity. This type of pathology is often transmitted from a diabetic parent to a child. The chances of inheriting the disease are especially high if it is diagnosed in both the father and the mother. Boys are more at risk of inheriting sugar disease than girls. Such diabetes makes itself felt as early as childhood or adolescence.
- Severe pancreatitis. With this pathology, the work of the pancreas is disrupted. The functionality of the organ decreases. The destruction of the pancreas begins at the cellular level. The damaged organ is no longer able to synthesize the required amount of insulin. Due to such violations, diabetes mellitus develops.
- Autoimmune process. This pathology remains incomprehensible and unexplored today. In an autoimmune process, the immune system malfunctions. The body begins to perceive its own healthy cells as pathogenic agents that require destruction. He reacts immediately and actively begins to destroy the cells of the pancreas. Most often, such “mistakes” appear after a man has suffered severe infectious diseases (measles, scarlet fever, tonsillitis, chickenpox).
Factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in men
The following points are capable of provoking the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus:
- improper nutrition;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- the use of certain medications (diuretics, hormones);
- age after 50 years (often at this age hypertension, cardiac ischemia, atherosclerosis, contributing to the onset of diabetes mellitus develop);
- infectious processes in the body;
- prolonged overvoltage, stress, depression.
Diabetes in men can develop not only in old age. If a person is overly addicted to alcohol, then his pancreas is working hard. Gradually, the cells of the organ begin to die off. Smoking worsens the condition of blood vessels and brings the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease closer. These bad habits can trigger the development of diabetes in men aged 30-40.
Symptoms and signs of diabetes in men
The first signs of diabetes in a man can appear quite early. Sometimes unpleasant symptoms are observed at the age of 25-30. But the stronger sex rarely gives them importance. Men explain the unpleasant symptomatology of excessive stress, lack of rest, and overstrain. The clinical picture of diabetes mellitus is very similar to the manifestations of diabetes insipidus. But the mechanisms that trigger pathologies are different. In the first case, insulin is to blame, and in the second, vasopressin (a hormone of the hypothalamus). Treatment for these ailments is different.
The following symptoms can signal the initial phase of diabetes mellitus:
- unreasonable thirst (appears periodically);
- increased urination;
- decrease in endurance during physical exertion;
- the appearance of fatigue;
- decrease or increase in body weight;
- pressure surges;
- temporary loss of sensitivity in the limbs;
- unexplained itching of the skin;
- mild recurrent tingling sensations in the legs or hands;
- decreased appetite;
- feeling of dry mouth;
- swelling of the limbs;
- burning, pain in the eyes;
- decreased flexibility in fingers and toes.
A man does not necessarily have all of the first symptoms listed above. Sometimes the disease is secretive or accompanied by only a few unpleasant symptoms.
Type 1 diabetes symptoms
Such diabetes mellitus develops over several weeks. It is characterized by a pronounced clinic. Most often, patients are faced with the following symptoms:
- a constant feeling of thirst (the need to drink can wake up at night);
- chronic fatigue;
- frequent urination;
- general weakness;
- severe itching of the skin (especially in the groin area and anus);
- decreased performance;
- depressed depressive state;
- persistent pressure increase;
- possible nausea, vomiting;
- pain and discomfort in the intestines;
- decreased potency.
Clinical picture type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 can be hidden for a long time (even several years). The man does not suffer from any symptoms. Pathology is revealed during the next examination. Type 2 diabetes can be manifested by the following indirect signs:
- scratches, cuts on the skin take a long time and do not heal well;
- hair begins to fall out en masse;
- visual acuity falls;
- tooth enamel begins to deteriorate;
- bleeding gums;
- often suffers from hunger;
- body weight increases;
- reproductive disorders develop (up to impotence);
- weakness, fatigue appears.
According to statistics, men from 25 to 30 years old most often develop type 1 diabetes. And it is associated with past diseases or heredity. Older men (30-40 years old) become hostages of a wrong lifestyle. They usually develop type 2 diabetes.
The consequences of diabetes in men
Diabetes itself is not so terrible as the consequences to which it can lead are dangerous. Negative complications develop in the absence of treatment or improper therapy.
Why diabetes is dangerous
Pathology can lead to the following complications:
- Vascular disease. A high concentration of glucose worsens the condition of the arteries and capillaries. The vascular walls lose their elasticity. Persistent hypertension develops. There is a high risk of stroke, heart attack, kidney or heart failure.
- Heart pathology. Large accumulations of cholesterol clog blood vessels. Atherosclerosis develops. It impairs blood conduction and puts additional stress on the heart. This threatens the man with a sudden heart attack. Atherosclerotic plaques can lead to ischemia and heart failure.
- Kidney disease. These organs provide blood filtration. Glucose passing through the kidneys destroys the mechanism created by nature. The functionality of the organs decreases. Nephropathy, renal failure begins to develop.
- Ophthalmic diseases. In diabetes mellitus, the capillaries feeding the retina are affected, and the optic nerve is destroyed. This leads to visual impairment, the development of cataracts, blindness.
- Pathology of the urinary system. The high concentration of sugar creates a favorable environment for the development of various microbes. Therefore, with diabetes, men have recurrent urethritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis.
- Limb pathology. Insufficient blood circulation, nerve damage leads to loss of sensitivity in the limbs. Gangrene may appear over time. The dead areas have to be amputated.
The connection between impotence and disease
Diabetes mellitus has a tangible effect on reproductive function in men. Against the background of a high concentration of glucose, testosterone synthesis decreases. Decreases blood flow to the genitals. Impaired metabolism provokes a decrease in sperm production. Pathogenic microbes in the genitourinary system can cause balanoposthitis (inflammation of the head of the penis). And this pathology provokes the appearance of phimosis (narrowing of the foreskin). All these factors lead to the development of the following reproductive disorders in the stronger sex:
- erection decreases;
- sexual desire worsens;
- dysfunction of ejaculation develops;
- there is no orgasm;
- conceiving a child becomes impossible;
- male infertility develops.
Faced with a decrease in potency, men often resort to medications that stimulate erection. The use of such drugs for diabetes mellitus is impractical. To restore the reproductive system, it is necessary to choose the correct treatment aimed at normalizing blood glucose.
Treatment of diabetes in men
For diabetes treatment to be successful, therapy must be approached comprehensively. Doctors recommend revising your lifestyle, strictly adhering to a diet and taking drugs that normalize sugar levels in the body.
With diabetes mellitus, you must follow these rules:
- Daily walks. It is recommended to take 10,000 steps daily to support the body, train endurance and fill all systems with oxygen . Such a walk (at an average pace) takes 1-1.5 hours.
- Physical exercise. Swimming and skiing are useful for men with diabetes. You can practice Nordic walking.
- Rejection of bad habits. Smoking and drinking alcohol are completely incompatible with diabetes. They increase the negative effect on the pancreas and blood vessels, thereby provoking the accelerated development of complications.
Special emphasis in diabetes mellitus is placed on nutrition. To avoid complications of the disease, the following rules must be observed:
- Sugar and chocolate products are completely excluded from the diet. The taboo extends to sweets, bars, caramels, sugary drinks.
- A man’s menu should not include bakery and flour products. With diabetes mellitus, it is forbidden to eat pies, cakes, white bread, buns.
- Some fruits (pears, mangoes, bananas) and most berries are subject to restriction.
- It is recommended to reduce the intake of salt in the body. This will reduce the stress on the kidneys. The daily dose of table salt is 5 g.
- Complex carbohydrates and proteins form the basis of nutrition. It is recommended to enrich the diet with dietary meat and fish. The menu should contain: cucumbers, lettuce, cabbage, radishes, legumes, cereals. It is advisable to keep potatoes to a minimum. Dairy products are useful.
In each case, the diet is selected individually. Nutritional recommendations are directly related to the stage of diabetes progression and the development (or absence) of complications.
Treatment is based on the type of diabetes:
- 1 type. Insulin injections help to normalize glucose concentration. The drug is used for life. The doctor may vary the dosage from time to time.
- Type 2. Choosing a treatment regimen for non-insulin dependent diabetes is more difficult. Most often, therapy begins with metformin .
Recently, the treatment of ailments with folk remedies has become popular. In many cases, this therapy is beneficial. Diabetes mellitus is no exception. But lovers of alternative medicine need to remember that folk remedies are only an aid to the main therapy prescribed by a doctor.
To avoid bouts of diabetes mellitus (sharp spikes in blood glucose), doctors recommend following these rules:
- systematically monitor the concentration of sugar in the blood;
- strictly adhere to the diet;
- protect yourself from stress;
- properly fight any infections;
- give up alcohol, smoking;
- do sport;
- control weight and prevent the development of obesity;
- visit an endocrinologist regularly.
Diabetes mellitus is a very unpleasant pathology for a man. Ignoring the disease can lead not only to a “fiasco” in your personal life. Pathology is fraught with disability or death. But with adequate treatment, compliance with all the doctor’s prescriptions, a man will enjoy life for a long time without diabetes attacks.