The main sign of the development of diabetes mellitus is a long-term and stable increase in glucose in the human body. The insidiousness of the disease lies in the fact that the patient may not be aware of the presence of danger for a long time and detects it during a routine examination by chance.
In order to prevent the development of the disease, you need to know how to measure blood sugar at home without a glucometer. Such knowledge allows a person to regularly conduct independent monitoring of the concentration of sugar in the blood and, if violations are detected, promptly seek advice and assistance from the attending physician.
How to measure blood sugar at home without blood glucose meters?
At the moment, several methods have been developed for how to determine blood sugar at home without a glucometer. This does not require knowledge in the field of medicine and a visit to the clinical laboratory of a medical institution.
The most popular measurement methods are urine or blood test strips, a portable sweat analyzer, and the A1C kit.
Before you independently measure the level of glucose in the body, you should study the rules and recommendations for the procedure. This is required for correct measurements and reliable test results.
The main recommendations on how to measure blood sugar without a glucometer correctly are as follows:
- The manipulations should be carried out in the morning and on an empty stomach.
- Before taking measurements, wash your hands in warm water and laundry soap.
- Before taking blood for analysis, you must massage your fingers well so that the blood rushes to them, which will allow it to quickly get to the test strip.
- A puncture for taking biomaterial should be made on the side of the fingertip, this will significantly reduce pain.
To obtain the most objective picture of the level of glucose in the body, it is recommended to take several measurements per day – in the morning on an empty stomach, two hours after eating and before going to bed.
How to measure blood sugar without a meter, but using blood test strips
The most accurate method for determining the amount of simple carbohydrates in plasma is a laboratory method for diagnosing diabetes. However, the simplest test method is to use test strips.
At home, the patient can measure the indicator even without a special device – a glucometer. For this purpose, you will need to purchase special test strips.
This method of diagnosing the amount of simple carbohydrates in the body is suitable for express diagnostics. The convenience of the method lies in its simplicity and availability, since its use does not require the presence of special equipment and specialized devices.
Benefits of using blood test strips:
- low cost;
- ease of use in any environment, both at home and outside;
- no energy source is required for this analysis method;
- takes up small space and is easy to use on the road;
- easy to use.
How to measure blood sugar without glucometers using special test strips? Externally, each strip is divided into several functional areas:
- Control zone – the area of the strip on which the active component is located – a chemical compound that reacts with blood.
- Test zone – the area of application of the control substance, which determines the correctness of the readings.
- Contact zone – the area of the test strip that is designed to be held in your hands.
When a biomaterial enters, a change in the pH level occurs in the control zone, which leads to a change in its color. The coloration becomes darker, the higher the blood glucose level. Determination of the indicator can take from 60 seconds to eight minutes. The duration of the procedure depends on the manufacturer of the test strips.
After the procedure, the color change of the strip is compared with a special scale printed on the package. If the color does not match with the attached standard, the values belonging to two adjacent colors are used and the average is calculated.
In addition to glucose testing, test strips can be used for rapid determination of protein and ketones in urine.
Carrying out a blood sugar test at home without a glucometer, using test strips, has limitations in use for patients with type 1 diabetes and for elderly patients who have developed senile diabetes.
Such restrictions are associated with an increased renal threshold, which leads to a distortion of the true clinical picture of diabetes mellitus.
Using test strips to determine sugar in urine
It is possible to reveal the excess of the amount of simple carbohydrates in the body using an express analysis of the sugar content in the urine.
It is required to test for sugar in urine using test strips at least 2 times throughout the week. Testing should be carried out 1.5-2 hours after eating.
It is possible to check the sugar index in the body using urine analysis due to the fact that the kidneys are actively involved in the removal of excess of this compound from the body.
This method can be used when there is a high level of simple carbohydrates in the body. For diabetics with low glucose levels, it is not suitable. Urine analysis is carried out using test strips used to determine blood sugars, only in this case another biological fluid is applied to them.
When conducting research, a certain list of requirements and rules should be followed.
To obtain reliable information, the following rules should be followed:
- urine is collected in a sterile container in the morning, on an empty stomach or 2 hours after eating;
- a test strip is lowered into a container with a biological fluid;
- keep the tester in urine for 2 minutes in an upright position;
- when removing the tester, do not shake off or wipe the urine off;
- after removing the strip, you need to wait 2 minutes until the reagent has fully interacted;
- the result is evaluated in accordance with the scale presented on the packaging with the testers.
When using this technique, it should be remembered that it does not make sense to apply it to diabetics with type 1 disease and patients over 50 years old. This is due to the unreliability of the indicators obtained in this case.
Using a sweat analyzer
To measure the sugar content in the blood, you can use a modern gadget – a sweat analyzer. This electronic device resembles a wristwatch. It can be used to measure the indicator without making painful punctures of the skin.
The device is worn on the wrist and is measured every 20 minutes. Using a gadget allows a diabetic to keep a vital physiological indicator under constant control.
Despite the fact that measurements with an electronic device are quite accurate, it is necessary to periodically check the indicator by conducting a chemical analysis of blood in a clinical laboratory. This approach eliminates the likelihood of receiving inaccurate data in the event of an electronic gadget failure.
Application for measuring the amount of sugar in the blood set A1C
The use of the A1C kit makes it possible to find out the average level of glucose in the body for a period of three months. The normal value of glycated hemoglobin in humans should not exceed 6%.
To conduct research, you will need to purchase a special device from the pharmacy network, designed to perform several measurements. The number of measurements corresponds to the number of test strips in the kit.
Thanks to its use, the attending physician can adjust the scheme for conducting therapeutic measures against diabetes mellitus.
The features of measurements using A1C are as follows:
- The duration of the measurement procedure is 5 minutes.
- More blood is required to take measurements than when using blood glucose meters.
- The blood is placed in a pipette and then mixed with a special reagent in a flask. After mixing, apply to a special test strip.
- The result of the measurements is displayed on the device screen after 5 minutes.
The use of A1C is recommended for patients in whom the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is confirmed. It is better not to use the device as a diagnostic device. This is due to the fact that it may be required only once, and the cost of the device is quite high.
Symptoms of hyperglycemia and what affects the development of the pathological condition
The main symptoms characteristic of an increased glucose content in the human body are dry mouth. Frequent urination, blurred vision, the appearance of lethargy, a sharp change in body weight, dry skin, numbness of the fingers on the lower and upper extremities.
If several of these symptoms are detected, a person is recommended to consult a doctor for examination and a complex of laboratory tests. The doctor recommends to measure the level of sugar in urine and blood. After the examination and detection of excess of the norm, the endocrinologist prescribes an adequate course of drug treatment and an appropriate diet.
To regularly check the content of simple carbohydrates in the body, it is recommended to purchase a glucometer – a special device that allows you to measure the level of sugar in the blood.
You need to measure your glucose readings regularly, and you should keep a diary in which you need to record the results obtained and the time of the measurement. Such a diary allows the doctor to timely adjust the treatment process.
The most popular models of blood glucose meters are accu-chek.
A patient with diabetes mellitus should definitely know what factors can affect the level of glycemia. The reasons for the increase in the amount of sugars are:
- climatic changes when changing a place of residence;
- the development of infectious pathologies;
- impact on the body of stress;
- abuse of drinks containing caffeine;
- long-term use of oral contraceptives;
- violation of sleep and rest.
If a person has persistent and long-term hyperglycemia, then an immediate appeal to an endocrinologist is required, this will avoid the development of a large number of complications and disorders in the body.